@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9758,
	  title     = {Balancing Tourism and Environment: The ETM Model},
	  author    = {U.V Jose and  Muhammed Nahar and  Vijayakumar S. and  Sonia Jose},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Environment both endowed and built are essential for
tourism. However tourism and environment maintains a complex
relationship, where in most cases environment is at the receiving end.
Many tourism development activities have adverse environmental
effects, mainly emanating from construction of general infrastructure
and tourism facilities. These negative impacts of tourism can lead to
the destruction of precious natural resources on which it depends.
These effects vary between locations; and its effect on a hill
destination is highly critical. This study aims at developing a
Sustainable Tourism Planning Model for an environmentally
sensitive tourism destination in Kerala, India. Being part of the
Nilgiri mountain ranges, Munnar falls in the Western Ghats, one of
the biological hotspots in the world. Endowed with a unique high
altitude environment Munnar inherits highly significant ecological
wealth. Giving prime importance to the protection of this ecological
heritage, the study proposes a tourism planning model with resource
conservation and sustainability as the paramount focus. Conceiving a
novel approach towards sustainable tourism planning, the study
proposes to assess tourism attractions using Ecological Sensitivity
Index (ESI) and Tourism Attractiveness Index (TAI). Integration of
these two indices will form the Ecology – Tourism Matrix (ETM),
outlining the base for tourism planning in an environmentally
sensitive destination. The ETM Matrix leads to a classification of
tourism nodes according to its Conservation Significance and
Tourism Significance. The spatial integration of such nodes based on
the Hub & Spoke Principle constitutes sub – regions within the STZ.
Ensuing analyses lead to specific guidelines for the STZ as a whole,
specific tourism nodes, hubs and sub-regions. The study results in a
multi – dimensional output, viz., (1) Classification system for tourism
nodes in an environmentally sensitive region/ destination (2)
Conservation / Tourism Development Strategies and Guidelines for
the micro and macro regions and (3) A Sustainable Tourism Planning
Tool particularly for Ecologically Sensitive Destinations, which can
be adapted for other destinations as well.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences},
	  volume    = {3},
	  number    = {6},
	  year      = {2009},
	  pages     = {1147 - 1152},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9758},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/30},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 30, 2009},
	}