%0 Journal Article
	%A Jingming Wu and  Junqi Yue and  Ruikang Hu and  Zhaoguang Yang and  Lifeng Zhang
	%D 2008
	%J International Journal of Biomedical and Biological Engineering
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 20, 2008
	%T Use of Caffeine and Human Pharmaceutical Compounds to Identify Sewage Contamination
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/8464
	%V 20
	%X Fecal coliform bacteria are widely used as indicators of
sewage contamination in surface water. However, there are some
disadvantages in these microbial techniques including time consuming
(18-48h) and inability in discriminating between human and animal
fecal material sources. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a more
specific indicator of human sanitary waste. In this study, the feasibility
was investigated to apply caffeine and human pharmaceutical
compounds to identify the human-source contamination. The
correlation between caffeine and fecal coliform was also explored.
Surface water samples were collected from upstream, middle-stream
and downstream points respectively, along Rochor Canal, as well as 8
locations of Marina Bay. Results indicate that caffeine is a suitable
chemical tracer in Singapore because of its easy detection (in the range
of 0.30-2.0 ng/mL), compared with other chemicals monitored.
Relative low concentrations of human pharmaceutical compounds (<
0.07 ng/mL) in Rochor Canal and Marina Bay water samples make
them hard to be detected and difficult to be chemical tracer. However,
their existence can help to validate sewage contamination. In addition,
it was discovered the high correlation exists between caffeine
concentration and fecal coliform density in the Rochor Canal water
samples, demonstrating that caffeine is highly related to the
human-source contamination.
	%P 289 - 293