Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31100
Carbonate Microfacies Analysis of Sinjar Formation from Qara Dagh Mountains, South–West of Sulaimani City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Authors: Heyam Daod


The paper describes the carbonate microfacies identified in the Sinjar Formation (Late Paleocene–Early Eocene) cropping out in Qara Dagh Mountain, near Sulekan Village approximately 20km south–west of Sulaimani (Iraq). One section (62m thick) has been measured in the field and closely sampled to undertake detailed microfaciesal and micropalaeontological studies to determine the formation-s age and environment of deposition. A samples were collected illustrating all the lithological changes along the section. The limestone in the studied area is hard and extremely rich in large foraminifers (soritids, rotaliids, nummulites, miliolids) and green algae (dasycladales). The investigation of the thin sections allowed us to identify the carbonate microfacies (18 types and subtypes) and the micropaleontological association (foraminifers and green algae), to determine the age of formation and to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of deposition (fore-reef, reef, back-reef). Based on the field observations and the studied thin sections, we determined three Units of a carbonate platform (I, II and III) from the base to the top of the section: Unit I with coralgal associations, Unit II is dominated by larger foraminifers and haracterized by the absence of coralgal associations, while Unit III is dominated by small foraminifers (mostly miliolids), peloids and green algae. It is partially dolomitized.

Keywords: Facies analysis, Late Paleocene–Early Eocene, Sinjar Formation, SW Sulaimani (Iraq)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1731


[1] Scheibner C. and Speijer R. P., "Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Tethyan carbonate platform evolution ÔÇöA response to long- and short-term paleoclimatic change," Earth-Science Reviews 90, pp. 71- 102, 2008
[2] Buday T., "The regional geology of Iraq," vol.1 Stratigraphy and Paleogeography, pp. 445, Kassab and Jassim,( Eds.), S. O. M., Baghdad, 1980
[3] Bellen R. C. V., Dunnington H. V. Wetzel R. and Wortone D. M., "Lexique stratigraphique International," V. 3, Asie, Fasc. 10 a, pp. 333, Paris, 1959
[4] Jassim S. Z., Al-Shaibani S. K. and Ajina T. M., "Possible Middle Eocen block movement in the Derbendikhan area northeastern Iraq," J. Geol. Soc. Iraq, 1975, Special Issue pp. 139-145
[5] Al- Saddiki A., "Stratigraphy and microfacies from Sinjar Formation," Unpublished, M.Sc. Thesis Baghdad University, 1968
[6] Ditmar V., "Geological conditions and hydrocarbon prospects of the republic of Iraq (Northern and central parts)," Technoexport Report. INOC Library, Baghdad, 1971
[7] Al-Surdashy A. M. A., "Lithologic, Facies And Environmental Study Of Sinjar Formation In Selected Sections From Sulaimaniah Area , North-East of Iraq," Unpublished, M. Sc. thesis, Salahaldin University, Erbil, Iraq, 1988
[8] Al-Sayyab A. S. and Al-Saddiki A., "Microfossils from Sinjar Formation," Jour. Geol. Soc. Iraq vol. 13, No. 1, pp, 3-7, 1970
[9] Al-Kufaishi F. A. M., "A geochemical study of Sinjar limestone in subsurface section (K 116)," Jour. Geol. Soc., Iraq, vol. X, pp. 47-52, 1977
[10] Ebrahem G. B. and Nadir B. M.," Final report on limestone sediment suitable for sugar industry," Sulaimaniya Governorate, GEOSURV, Internal report, Iraq, 1981
[11] Al-Etaby W. and Muhamad S. A.,"Final report on limestone sediment suitable for cement Indusry in Tasluja area," Sulaimaniya governorate, GEOSURV, internal report, 1979
[12] Jabr F. and Al-Ubaydi H., "Kanijina recrystalline limestone," GEOSURV, internal report, Iraq, 1973
[13] Shathaya H. F., "Biostratigraphy of Sinjar Formation," M.Sc. Thesis, University of Baghdad, 1980, pp. 63
[14] Al-Khafaji N. H., "Geochemistry and petrography of Sinjar Formation," northern Iraq :Unpublished, M. Sc. Thesis University of Baghdad, 1980
[15] Mallick K. A. and Al-Qayim B. J., "Sedimentology of Sinjar limestone Formation, Sulaimaniah area , Northeastern Iraq," Acta mineral. Petrog., Szeged, XXVII, pp. 10-116, 1985
[16] Al-Fadhli I. and Mallick K. A., "Fosphorities of Sinjar formation of Sulaimaniya area," Iraq, Acta mineral petrog., vol. 2, pp. 219-233, 1980
[17] Lawa F. A., "Sequence stratigraphic analysis of the middle Paleocene-Middle Eocene in the Sulaimani District Kurdistan Region," Unpublished, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sulaimani, Iraq, 2004
[18] Weber H., "Ergebnisse erdolgeoloischer AufscMussarbeiten der DEA in nordost Syrien," Erdol-Kohle, Erdgas, Petroleum, 14, Hannover-Wien, 1963
[19] Dubertret B.,"Liban, Syrie et bordure des pays voisins," Notes and Memoires Meyen Orient, vol. VIII, Paris, 1966
[20] Altinli A. E., "Geology of eastern and southeastern Anatolia. Turkey," Min. Rep. Explor. Inst. Bull. pp. 35-76, Foreign Edition, Ankara, 1966
[21] Furst M., "Stratigraphie and werdegang der Oestlichen Zagrosketten Iran," Erlanger. Geol. Abhandlungen, 80, Erlangen, 1970
[22] James G. A. and Wynd J. G., "Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement area," AAPG, Bull., 49/12, Tulsa, 1965
[23] Radoi6i6 R., "Note on Paleocene algae in the Dubrovnik Coast (Adriatic Carbonate Platform)," Annales Geologiques de la Peninsule Balkanique, 65, pp. 29-45, 2004
[24] Granier B., "Stratigraphic distribution of the Cenozoic Dasycladalean algae," Version 1-02, modified from Deloffre R. and Granier B., 1992, Revue de Paleobiologie, vol. 11, N° 2, pp. 331-356, Geneve, 2001
[25] Elliot E. G., "A new dasycladacean alga from the Paleocene of Kurdistan," Paleontology, vol. 21, part 3, pp. 687-691, 1978
[26] Meric E. and coruh T., "Mardinella, a new genus and discussion on Orbitolites shirazensis rahaghi, 1983," Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 4:2, pp. 166-169, 1991
[27] Ozcan E., Sirel, E., Altiner, S. 0. and Colakoglu S., "Late Paleocene Orthophragminae (Foraminifera) from the Haymana-Polatli Basin, central Turkey and description of a new taxon, Orbitoclypeus haymanaensis," Micropaleontology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 339-357, 2001
[28] Henson F. R. S., "Cretaceous and Tertiary reef formation and associated sediments in Middle East," AAPG, Bull. vol. 34, pp. 215¬238, 1950
[29] TomagovSrch A., "Microfacies and depositional environment of an Upper Triassic intra-platform carbonate basin: the Fatric Unit of the West Carpathians (Slovakia)," Facies 2004, 50, pp. 77-105, 2004
[30] Noel P. James, "Reefs in Facies Models," Geological Association of Canada," R. G. Walker (Ed.), pp. 229-244, 1984
[31] Zamagni J., Mutti M. and Kogir A., "Evolution of shallow benthic communities during the Late Paleocene-Earliest Eocene transition in the Northern Tethys (SW Slovenia)," Facies vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 25-43, Springer Berlin, 2007
[32] Murray J. W., "Distribution and ecology of living benthic foraminiferids," pp. 274, New York, 1973
[33] Hallock P., Rottger R. and Wetmore K., "Hypothesis on form and function in Foraminifera," In: Lee J. J. and Anderson 0. R. (Eds.), Biology of Foraminifera, pP. 41-72, Academic Press, London, 1991b
[34] Forman M. J. and Schlanger S. 0., "Tertiary reef and associated limestone facies from louisiane and guam," J. Geol. , vol. 65, pp. 611¬627, 1957
[35] Moore W. E., "Ecology of recent foraminifera in northern Florida keys," AAPG. Bull., vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 727-741, 1957
[36] Ghose B. K., "Paleoecology of the Cenozoic reefal foraminifera and algae review," Paleogeog. Paleoclim. Paleoecol., vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 231-256, 1977
[37] Fliigel E., "Microfacies analysis of limestones," pp. 633, Springer¬Verlag, Berlin, 1982
[38] Fliigel E., "Microfacies of carbonat rocks," pp. 976, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004
[39] Mohanti M., Srivastava S. C. and Singh A. K., "Calcareous algae in the Palaeogene carbonate microfacies of north-western Kutch (Gujarat), India," Abstract, 4th International Symposium on Fossil Algae, Riding, R. (Ed.), Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, 1987
[40] Genot P., "Les chlorophycees calcaires du Paleogene d'Europe Noed¬Occidentale (Bassin de Paris, Bretagne, Cotentin, Bassin de Mons)," These Doctorat d'Etat, Nantes, 1987, pp.518
[41] Genot P., "Dasycladales communities during Lutetian in France," 5th Regional Symposium of the 1FAA, 2005, vol. 1, Abstract
[42] Scheibner C., Speijer R. P. and Marzouk A., "Larger foraminiferal turnover during the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum and paleoclimatic control on the evolution of platform ecosystems," Geology 33, pp. 493-496, 2005