{"title":"Mathematical Modeling of Storm Surge in Three Dimensional Primitive Equations","authors":"Worachat Wannawong, Usa W. HumphriesPrungchan Wongwises, Suphat Vongvisessomjai","volume":54,"journal":"International Journal of Mathematical and Computational Sciences","pagesStart":797,"pagesEnd":807,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/6330","abstract":"The mathematical modeling of storm surge in sea and\r\ncoastal regions such as the South China Sea (SCS) and the Gulf of\r\nThailand (GoT) are important to study the typhoon characteristics.\r\nThe storm surge causes an inundation at a lateral boundary exhibiting\r\nin the coastal zones particularly in the GoT and some part of the SCS.\r\nThe model simulations in the three dimensional primitive equations\r\nwith a high resolution model are important to protect local properties\r\nand human life from the typhoon surges. In the present study, the\r\nmathematical modeling is used to simulate the typhoon\u2013induced\r\nsurges in three case studies of Typhoon Linda 1997. The results\r\nof model simulations at the tide gauge stations can describe the\r\ncharacteristics of storm surges at the coastal zones.","references":"[1] A. F. Blumberg and G. L. Mellor, A description of a three-dimensional\r\ncoastal ocean circulation model, In N. S. Heaps, editor, Three-\r\nDimensional Coastal Ocean Models, Coastal and Estuarine Sciences,\r\nAmerican Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 4(1987), 1-16.\r\n[2] G. L. Mellor, An equation of state for numerical models of oceans and\r\nestuaries, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 8(1991),\r\n609-611.\r\n[3] K. F. Bowden, Physical oceanography of coastal waters, Ellis Horwood,\r\nSouthampton, UK., (1983), 302.\r\n[4] M. D. Powell, P. J. Vivkery and T. A. Reinhold, Reduced drag coefficient\r\nfor high wind speeds in tropical cyclones, Nature, 422(2003), 278-283.\r\n[5] M. O. Edwards, Global Gridded Elevation and Bathymetry on 5-Minute\r\nGeographic Grid (ETOPO5), NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center,\r\nBoulder, Colorado, U.S.A., 1989.\r\n[6] P. Harr, R. Ellsberry, T. Hogan and W. Clune, North Pacific cyclone sea-\r\nlevel pressure errors with NOGAPS, Weather and Forecasting, 7(1992),\r\n3.\r\n[7] S. Levitus, R. Burgett and T. Boyer, World Ocean Atlas: Salinity, NOAA\r\nAtlas NESDIS 3, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.,\r\nU.S.A., 3(1994b), 99.\r\n[8] S. Levitus and T. Boyer, World Ocean Atlas: Temperature, NOAA Atlas\r\nNESDIS 4, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., U.S.A.,\r\n4(1994a), 117.\r\n[9] S. Vongvisessomjai, P. Chatanantavet and P. Srivihok, Interaction of\r\ntide and salinity barrier: Limitation of numerical model, Songklanakarin\r\nJournal of Science and Technology, 30(2008), 531-538.\r\n[10] T. D. Pugh, Tides, Surges and Mean Sea-Level, John Wiley & Sons,\r\nLondon, UK., (1987), 472.\r\n[11] T. Ezer, H. Arango and A. F. Shchepetkin, Developments in terrain-\r\nfollowing ocean models: intercomparison of numerical aspects, Ocean\r\nModelling, 4(2002), 249-267.\r\n[12] T. F. Hogan and T. E. Rosmond, The description of the Navy Operational\r\nGlobal Atmospheric System-s spectral forecast model, Monthly Weather\r\nReview, 119(1991), 1786-1815.\r\n[13] W. G. Large and S. Pond, Open ocean momentum fluxes in moderate\r\nto strong winds, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11(1981), 324-336.\r\n[14] W. Wannawong, U. W. Humphries and A. Luadsong, The application\r\nof curvilinear coordinate for primitive equation in the Gulf of Thailand,\r\nThai Journal of Mathematics, 6(2008), 89-108.\r\n[15] W. Wannawong, U. W. Humphries, P. Wongwises, S. Vongvisessomjai\r\nand W. Lueangaram, A numerical study of two coordinates for energy\r\nbalance equations by wave model, Thai Journal of Mathematics,\r\n8(2010), 197-214.\r\n[16] W. Wannawong, U. W. Humphries, P. Wongwises, S. Vongvisessomjai\r\nand W. Lueangaram, Numerical modeling and computation of storm\r\nsurge for primitive equation by hydrodynamic model, Thai Journal of\r\nMathematics, 8(2010), 347-363.\r\n[17] W. Wannawong, U. W. Humphries, P. Wongwises, S. Vongvisessomjai\r\nand W. Lueangaram, Numerical analysis of wave and hydrodynamic\r\nmodels for energy balance and primitive equations, International Journal\r\nof Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, 4(2010), 140-150.\r\n[18] W. Wannawong, U. W. Humphries, P. Wongwises and S. Vongvisessomjai,\r\nThree steps of one-way nested grid for energy balance equations by\r\nwave model, International Journal of Computational and Mathematical\r\nSciences, 1(2011), 23-30.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 54, 2011"}