@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/5986,
	  title     = {Quality Assurance and Effectiveness in Kurdistan Higher Education: The Reform Process},
	  author    = {Selar Othman Ali},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Implementing quality assurance in higher education establishments is the main focus of the reform process currently undertaken by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The reform agenda has involved attempts to improve academic quality and management processes in universities, technical institutions and colleges. The central challenge for the reform process is to produce change in higher education in a region where administration is described as centralized and bureaucratic. To make these changes, there should be a well-designed plans and follow up processes in order to monitor progress and develop responses to obstacles. Lack of skills, resources, political dilemmas, poor motivation, and readiness to face the consequences of change are factors which will determine the success of the reform process.
},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences},
	  volume    = {6},
	  number    = {6},
	  year      = {2012},
	  pages     = {1308 - 1311},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/5986},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/66},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 66, 2012},
	}