%0 Journal Article
	%A S. Sieniutycz
	%D 2010
	%J International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 42, 2010
	%T An Unified Approach to Thermodynamics of Power Yield in Thermal, Chemical and Electrochemical Systems
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/4816
	%V 42
	%X This paper unifies power optimization approaches in
various energy converters, such as: thermal, solar, chemical, and
electrochemical engines, in particular fuel cells. Thermodynamics
leads to converter-s efficiency and limiting power. Efficiency
equations serve to solve problems of upgrading and downgrading of
resources. While optimization of steady systems applies the
differential calculus and Lagrange multipliers, dynamic optimization
involves variational calculus and dynamic programming. In reacting
systems chemical affinity constitutes a prevailing component of an
overall efficiency, thus the power is analyzed in terms of an active
part of chemical affinity. The main novelty of the present paper in the
energy yield context consists in showing that the generalized heat
flux Q (involving the traditional heat flux q plus the product of
temperature and the sum products of partial entropies and fluxes of
species) plays in complex cases (solar, chemical and electrochemical)
the same role as the traditional heat q in pure heat engines.
The presented methodology is also applied to power limits in fuel
cells as to systems which are electrochemical flow engines propelled
by chemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is determined by
magnitudes and directions of participating streams and mechanism of
electric current generation. Voltage lowering below the reversible
voltage is a proper measure of cells imperfection. The voltage losses,
called polarization, include the contributions of three main sources:
activation, ohmic and concentration. Examples show power maxima
in fuel cells and prove the relevance of the extension of the thermal
machine theory to chemical and electrochemical systems. The main
novelty of the present paper in the FC context consists in introducing
an effective or reduced Gibbs free energy change between products p
and reactants s which take into account the decrease of voltage and
power caused by the incomplete conversion of the overall reaction.
	%P 415 - 430