@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/4327,
	  title     = {Development of Face Surrogate for Impact Protection Design for Cyclist},
	  author    = {Sanga Monthatipkul and  Pio Iovenitti and  Igor Sbarski},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Bicycle usage for exercise, recreation, and commuting
to work in Australia shows that pedal cycling is the fourth most
popular activity with 10.6% increase in participants between 2001
and 2007. As with other means of transport, accident and injury
becomes common although mandatory bicycle helmet wearing has
been introduced. The research aims to develop a face surrogate made
of sandwich of rigid foam and rubber sheets to represent human
facial bone under blunt impact. The facial surrogate will serve as an
important test device for further development of facial-impact
protection for cyclist. A test procedure was developed to simulate the
energy of impact and record data to evaluate the effect of impact on
facial bones. Drop tests were performed to establish a suitable
combination of materials. It was found that the sandwich structure of
rigid extruded-polystyrene foam (density of 40 kg/m3 with a pattern
of 6-mm-holes), Neoprene rubber sponge, and Abrasaflex rubber
backing, had impact characteristics comparable to that of human
facial bone. In particular, the foam thickness of 30 mm and 25 mm
was found suitable to represent human zygoma (cheekbone) and
maxilla (upper-jaw bone), respectively.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Biomedical and Biological Engineering},
	  volume    = {3},
	  number    = {12},
	  year      = {2009},
	  pages     = {359 - 364},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/4327},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/36},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 36, 2009},
	}