Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31106
Temporal Analysis of Magnetic Nerve Stimulation–Towards Enhanced Systems via Virtualisation

Authors: Stefan M. Goetz, Thomas Weyh, Hans-Georg Herzog


The triumph of inductive neuro-stimulation since its rediscovery in the 1980s has been quite spectacular. In lots of branches ranging from clinical applications to basic research this system is absolutely indispensable. Nevertheless, the basic knowledge about the processes underlying the stimulation effect is still very rough and rarely refined in a quantitative way. This seems to be not only an inexcusable blank spot in biophysics and for stimulation prediction, but also a fundamental hindrance for technological progress. The already very sophisticated devices have reached a stage where further optimization requires better strategies than provided by simple linear membrane models of integrate-and-fire style. Addressing this problem for the first time, we suggest in the following text a way for virtual quantitative analysis of a stimulation system. Concomitantly, this ansatz seems to provide a route towards a better understanding by using nonlinear signal processing and taking the nerve as a filter that is adapted for neuronal magnetic stimulation. The model is compact and easy to adjust. The whole setup behaved very robustly during all performed tests. Exemplarily a recent innovative stimulator design known as cTMS is analyzed and dimensioned with this approach in the following. The results show hitherto unforeseen potentials.

Keywords: Optimization, TMS, inversion, Theory of magnetic stimulation, high voltage oscillator, cTMS

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1113


[1] T.N. Schriefer, K.R. Mills, N.M. Murray, and C.W. Hess. Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Neurology, and Psychiatry, vol. 51, pp. 60-66, 1988.
[2] J.L.R. Martin, M.J. Barbanoj, T.E. Schlaepfer, E. Thompson, V. Perez, and J. Kulisevsky. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 182, pp. 480-491, 2003.
[3] E.M. Wassermann, and S.H. Lisanby. Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review. Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 112, pp. 1367-1377, 2001.
[4] S. M. Goetz et al. Peripheral Inductive Stimulation: Physical Issues and Advanced Technological Solutions. WC IFMBE, vol. 25, pp. 72-75 2009.
[5] W.D-C. Man, J. Moxham, and M. I. Polkey Magnetic stimulation for the measurement of respiratory and skeletal muscle function. European Respiratory Journal, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 846-860, 2004.
[6] T.-R. Han, H.-I. Shin, and I.-S. Kim Magnetic Stimulation of the Quadriceps Femoris Muscle: Comparison of Pain with Electrical Stimulation. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 593-599, 2006.
[7] L. G. Cohen, S. Bandinelli, T. W. Findley, and M. Hallett Motor reorganization after upper limb amputation in man. A Study with focal magnetic stimulation. European Respiratory Journal, vol. 114, pp. 615- 627, 1991.
[8] A.V. Peterchev, R. Jalinous, and S.H. Lisanby. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulator Inducing Near-Rectangular Pulses with Controllable Pulse Width (cTMS). IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 55, no. 1, pp.257-266, 2007.
[9] B. A. Arcas, and A. L. Fairhall. Computation in a Single Neuron: Hodgkin and Huxley Revisited. Neural Computation, vol. 15, pp. 1715- 1749, 2003.
[10] F. Rattay, R.J. Greenberg, and S. Resatz. Neuron modeling. In Handbook of Neuroprothetic Methods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003.
[11] F. Rattay. The basic mechanism for the electrical stimulation of the nervous system. Neuroscience, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 335-346, 1999.
[12] J.A. White, J.T. Rubinstein, and A.R. Kay. Channel noise in neurons. Trends in Neuroscience, vol. 23, pp. 131-137, 2000.
[13] E.M. Wassermann. Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 1998.
[14] P. Koole, J. Holsheimer, J.J. Struijk, A.J. Verloop. Recruitment Characteristics of Nerve Fascicles Stimulated by a Multigroove Electrode. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 40- 50, 1997.
[15] P.H. Veltnik, J.A. van Alste, and H.B.K. Boom. Simulation of intrafascicular and extraneural nerve stimulation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 69-75, 1988.
[16] L.J. Dorfman. The distribution of conduction velocities (DCV) in peripheral nerves: a review. Muscle & Nerve, vol. 7, pp. 2-11, 1984.
[17] J.J. Rydzewski, and M.H. Evans. Diameter distribution spectra of myelinated axons in the median and ulnar nerves of the Soay sheep. Journal of Anatomy, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 813-818, 1977.
[18] I. A. Boyd, and M. R. Davey. Composition of Peripheral Nerves. E.& S. Livinstone, Edinburgh and London, 1968.
[19] J. P. Reilly. Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology. Springer, New York, 1998.
[20] Th. Weyh, K. Wendicke, C. Mentschel, H. Zantow, and H.R. Siebner. Marked differences in the thermal characteristics of figure-ofeight shaped coils used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 116, pp. 1477-1486, 2005.
[21] L. Niehaus, B.-U. Meyer, and Th. Weyh. Influence of pulse configuration and direction of coil current on excitatory effects of magnetic motor cortex and nerve stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 75-80, 2001.
[22] Th. Kammer, S. Beck, A. Thielscher, U. Laubis-Herrmann, and H. Topka. Motor thresholds in humans: a transcra-nial magnetic stimulation study comparing different pulse waveforms, current directions and stimulator types. Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 250-258, 2001.
[23] E. Corthout, A. T. Barker, and A. Cowey. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Which part of the current waveform causes the stimulation? Experimental Brain Research, vol. 141, pp. 128-132, 2001.