@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/14483,
	  title     = {Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil with Sulfated Zirconia: Effect of Calcination Temperature},
	  author    = {Suthat Turapan and  Cattareya Yotkamchornkun and  Kamchai Nuithitikul},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil with
a homogeneous base catalyst is unlikely owing to considerable
formation of soap. Free fatty acids (FFA) in crude palm oil need to
be reduced, e.g. by esterification. This study investigated the activity
of sulfated zirconia calcined at various temperatures for esterification
of FFA in crude palm oil to biodiesel. It was found that under a
proper reaction condition, sulfated zirconia well catalyzes
esterification. FFA content can be reduced to an acceptable value for
typical biodiesel production with a homogeneous base catalyst.
Crystallinity and sulfate attachment of sulfated zirconia depend on
calcination temperature during the catalyst preparation. Too low
temperature of calcination gives amorphous sulfated zirconia which
has low activity for esterification of FFA. In contrast, very high
temperature of calcination removes sulfate group, consequently,
conversion of FFA is reduced. The appropriate temperature range of
calcination is 550-650 oC.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering},
	  volume    = {4},
	  number    = {5},
	  year      = {2010},
	  pages     = {310 - 314},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/14483},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/41},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 41, 2010},
	}