@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/12898,
	  title     = {Using Mixtures of Waste Frying Oil and Pork Lard to Produce Biodiesel},
	  author    = {Joana M. Dias and  Conceição A. Ferraz and  Manuel F. Almeida},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Studying alternative raw materials for biodiesel production is of major importance. The use of mixtures with incorporation of wastes is an environmental friendly alternative and might reduce biodiesel production costs. The objective of the present work was: (i) to study biodiesel production using waste frying oil mixed with pork lard and (ii) to understand how mixture composition influences biodiesel quality. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification and quality was evaluated through determination of several parameters according to EN 14214. The weight fraction of lard in the mixture varied from 0 to 1 in 0.2 intervals. Biodiesel production yields varied from 81.7 to 88.0 (wt%), the lowest yields being the ones obtained using waste frying oil and lard alone as raw materials. The obtained products fulfilled most of the determined quality specifications according to European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214. Minimum purity (96.5 wt%) was closely obtained when waste frying oil was used alone and when 0.2% of lard was incorporated in the raw material (96.3 wt%); however, it ranged from 93.9 to 96.3 (wt%) being always close to the limit. From the evaluation of the influence of mixture composition in biodiesel quality, it was possible to establish a model to be used for predicting some parameters of biodiesel resulting from mixtures of waste frying oil with lard when different lard contents are used.
},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering},
	  volume    = {2},
	  number    = {8},
	  year      = {2008},
	  pages     = {193 - 197},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/12898},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/20},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 20, 2008},
	}