@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10010156,
	  title     = {A Numerical Study of Seismic Response of Shallow Square Tunnels in Two-Layered Ground },
	  author    = {Mahmoud Hassanlourad and  Mehran Naghizadehrokni and  Vahid Molaei},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {In this study, the seismic behavior of a shallow tunnel with square cross section is investigated in a two layered and elastic heterogeneous environment using numerical method. To do so, FLAC finite difference software was used. Behavioral model of the ground and tunnel structure was assumed linear elastic. Dynamic load was applied to the model for 0.2 seconds from the bottom in form of a square pulse with maximum acceleration of 1 m/s2. The interface between the two layers was considered at three different levels of crest, middle, and bottom of the tunnel. The stiffness of the two upper and lower layers was considered to be varied from 10 MPa to 1000 MPa. Deformation of cross section of the tunnel due to dynamic load propagation, as well as the values of axial force and bending moment created in the tunnel structure, were examined in the three states mentioned above. The results of analyses show that heterogeneity of the environment, its stratification, and positioning of the interface of the two layers with respect to tunnel height and the stiffness ratio of the two layers have significant effects on the value of bending moment, axial force, and distortion of tunnel cross-section.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Geological and Environmental Engineering},
	  volume    = {13},
	  number    = {3},
	  year      = {2019},
	  pages     = {167 - 174},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10010156},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/147},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 147, 2019},
	}