@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10010089,
	  title     = {The Effects of T-Walls on Urban Landscape and Quality of Life and Anti-Terror Design Concept in Kabul, Afghanistan },
	  author    = {Fakhrullah Sarwari and  Hiroko Ono},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Kabul city has suffered a lot in 40 years of conflict of civil war and “The war on terror”. After the invasion of Afghanistan by the United States of America and its allies in 2001, the Taliban was removed from operational power, but The Taliban and other terrorist groups remained in remote areas of the country, they started suicide attacks and bombings. Hence to protect from these attacks officials surrounded their office buildings and houses with concrete blast walls. It gives a bad landscape to the city and creates traffic congestions. Our research contains; questionnaire, reviewing Kabul Municipality documents and literature review. Questionnaires were distributed to Kabul citizens to find out how people feel by seeing the T-Walls on Kabul streets? And what problems they face with T-Walls. “The T-Walls pull down commission” of Kabul Municipality documents were reviewed to find out what caused the failure of this commission. A literature review has been done to compare Kabul with Washington D.C on how they designed the city against terrorism threat without turning the cities into lock down. Bogota city of Columbia urban happiness movement is reviewed and compared with Kabul. The finding of research revealed that citizens of Kabul want security but not at the expense of public realm and creating the architecture of fear. It also indicates that increasing the T-walls do not give secure feeling but instead; it increases terror, hatred and affect people’s optimism. At the end, a series of recommendation is suggested on the issue.
},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Urban and Civil Engineering},
	  volume    = {13},
	  number    = {2},
	  year      = {2019},
	  pages     = {110 - 114},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10010089},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/146},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 146, 2019},
	}