\r\nseismic protection, particularly for masonry. People choose this type

\r\nof structure since the cost and application are relatively cheap.

\r\nSeismic protection of masonry remains an interesting issue among

\r\nresearchers. In this study, we develop a low-cost seismic isolation

\r\nsystem for masonry using fiber reinforced elastomeric isolators. The

\r\nelastomer proposed consists of few layers of rubber pads and fiber

\r\nlamina, making it lower in cost comparing to the conventional

\r\nisolators. We present a finite element (FE) analysis to predict the

\r\nbehavior of the low cost rubber isolators undergoing moderate

\r\ndeformations. The FE model of the elastomer involves a hyperelastic

\r\nmaterial property for the rubber pad. We adopt a Yeoh hyperelasticity

\r\nmodel and estimate its coefficients through the available experimental

\r\ndata. Having the shear behavior of the elastomers, we apply that

\r\nisolation system onto small masonry housing. To attach the isolators

\r\non the building, we model the shear behavior of the isolation system

\r\nby means of a damped nonlinear spring model. By this attempt, the

\r\nFE analysis becomes computationally inexpensive. Several ground

\r\nmotion data are applied to observe its sensitivity. Roof acceleration

\r\nand tensile damage of walls become the parameters to evaluate

\r\nthe performance of the isolators. In this study, a concrete damage

\r\nplasticity model is used to model masonry in the nonlinear range.

\r\nThis tool is available in the standard package of Abaqus FE software.

\r\nFinally, the results show that the low-cost isolators proposed are

\r\ncapable of reducing roof acceleration and damage level of masonry

\r\nhousing. Through this study, we are also capable of monitoring the

\r\nshear deformation of isolators during seismic motion. It is useful to

\r\ndetermine whether the isolator is applicable. According to the results,

\r\nthe deformations of isolators on the benchmark one story building are

\r\nrelatively small.","references":"[1] R. P. Nanda, M. Shrikhande, and P. Agarwal, \u201cLow-cost base-isolation\r\nsystem for seismic protection of rural buildings,\u201d Practice Periodical on\r\nStructural Design and Construction, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 04015001, 2015.\r\n[2] T. Boen, Yogya Earthquake 27 May 2006: Structural Damage Report.\r\nEERI, 2006.\r\n[3] J. M. Kelly, \u201cEarthquake-resistant design with rubber,\u201d 1993.\r\n[4] A. Das, S. K. Deb, and A. Dutta, \u201cShake table testing of un-reinforced\r\nbrick masonry building test model isolated by u-frei,\u201d Earthquake\r\nEngineering & Structural Dynamics, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 253\u2013272, 2016.\r\n[5] N. C. Van Engelen, P. M. Osgooei, M. J. Tait, and D. Konstantinidis,\r\n\u201cExperimental and finite element study on the compression properties\r\nof modified rectangular fiber-reinforced elastomeric isolators (mr-freis),\u201d\r\nEngineering Structures, vol. 74, pp. 52\u201364, 2014.\r\n[6] A. Turer and B. O\u00a8 zden, \u201cSeismic base isolation using low-cost scrap\r\ntire pads (stp),\u201d Materials and Structures, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 891\u2013908,\r\n2008.\r\n[7] M. Spizzuoco, A. Calabrese, and G. Serino, \u201cInnovative low-cost\r\nrecycled rubber\u2013fiber reinforced isolator: experimental tests and finite\r\nelement analyses,\u201d Engineering Structures, vol. 76, pp. 99\u2013111, 2014.\r\n[8] H. Toopchi-Nezhad, M. J. Tait, and R. G. Drysdale, \u201cTesting\r\nand modeling of square carbon fiber-reinforced elastomeric seismic\r\nisolators,\u201d Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 15, no. 6,\r\npp. 876\u2013900, 2008.\r\n[9] M. Kumar, A. S. Whittaker, and M. C. Constantinou, \u201cAn advanced\r\nnumerical model of elastomeric seismic isolation bearings,\u201d Earthquake\r\nEngineering & Structural Dynamics, vol. 43, no. 13, pp. 1955\u20131974,\r\n2014.\r\n[10] M. Shahzad, A. Kamran, M. Z. Siddiqui, and M. Farhan, \u201cMechanical\r\ncharacterization and fe modelling of a hyperelastic material,\u201d Materials\r\nResearch, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 918\u2013924, 2015.\r\n[11] D. Simulia, \u201cAbaqus 6.13 users manual,\u201d Dassault Systems, Providence,\r\nRI, 2013.\r\n[12] S. Jerrams, M. Kaya, and K. Soon, \u201cThe effects of strain rate and\r\nhardness on the material constants of nitrile rubbers,\u201d Materials &\r\ndesign, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 157\u2013167, 1998.\r\n[13] A. Calabrese, M. Spizzuoco, G. Serino, G. Della Corte, and\r\nG. Maddaloni, \u201cShaking table investigation of a novel, low-cost, base\r\nisolation technology using recycled rubber,\u201d Structural Control and\r\nHealth Monitoring, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 107\u2013122, 2015.\r\n[14] H. K. Mishra, A. Igarashi, and H. Matsushima, \u201cFinite element analysis\r\nand experimental verification of the scrap tire rubber pad isolator,\u201d\r\nBulletin of Earthquake Engineering, pp. 1\u201321, 2013.\r\n[15] G. Milani and F. Milani, \u201cStretch\u2013stress behavior of elastomeric seismic\r\nisolators with different rubber materials: numerical insight,\u201d Journal of\r\nEngineering Mechanics, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 416\u2013429, 2011.\r\n[16] T. Choudhury, G. Milani, and H. B. Kaushik, \u201cComprehensive numerical\r\napproaches for the design and safety assessment of masonry buildings\r\nretrofitted with steel bands in developing countries: The case of india,\u201d\r\nConstruction and Building Materials, vol. 85, pp. 227\u2013246, 2015.\r\n[17] S. Tiberti, M. Acito, and G. Milani, \u201cComprehensive fe numerical\r\ninsight into finale emilia castle behavior under 2012 emilia romagna\r\nseismic sequence: damage causes and seismic vulnerability mitigation\r\nhypothesis,\u201d Engineering Structures, vol. 117, pp. 397\u2013421, 2016.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 125, 2017"}