Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla
Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high); that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; and 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1129141Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 856
 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2008. An Introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Rome: FAO. Accessed on 10/11/2016 from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf
 Pooja Sharma and Ashok Gulati, 2012. Aproaches to food security in Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico and Nigeria. Lessons for Developing Countries. Icrier. Policy Series. No. 14.
 Kruzslicika Mihaela, 2012. Analytical Instruments for Measuring Food security at Macroeconomic Level. Institute of Agricultural Economics, Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania. Papers, Series I, vol. XVII.
 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2003, Commodity Policy and Projections Service, Commodities and Trade Division. Accessed on 15/11/2016 from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm
 Ane Cristina Figueiredo Pereira de Faria, Issa Ibrahim Berchin, Jéssica Garcia, Silvia Natália Barbosa Back and José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, 2016. Understanding food security and international security links in the context of climate change. Third World Quarterly. Vol. 37. No. 6
 Martínez Salvador, Laura, 2016, Food security, self sufficiency and availability of amaranth in Mexico. Journal Problemas del Desarrollo, 186 (47), julio-septiembre 2016. Accessed on 05/11/2016 from: http://probdes.iiec.unam.mx
 National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. National Results. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública: Cuernavaca, Mexico, 2012.
 National Council for Evaluation of Social Development Policy. (CONEVAL). Dimensions of food security: Strategic Nutrition and Supply Evaluation. Mexico; Coneval: 2010.
 National Council of Population (CONAPO), 2011. Concept and dimensions of marginalization. Accessed on 05/12/2016 from: http://www.conapo.gob.mx/work/models/CONAPO/Resource/1755/1/images/01Capitulo.pdf
 Martínez Martínez, O. and Ramírez López, A. (2015). Conditional transfers and poverty in single-parent households. Study in urban areas of northeastern Mexico. Iberofórum. Journal of Social Sciences of the Universidad Iberoamericana. Year X, No. 20. July-December 2015 pp. 69-86. ISSN: 2007-0675.
 Buelga, S. (2007). Empowerment: the improvement of well-being from community psychology. Social psychology and well-being: an interdisciplinary approach (pp. 154-173). Universidad de Zaragoza. Accessed on 07/12/2016 from: https://www.uv.es/lisis/sofia/sofia_empower.pdf
 Zambrano, A., Bustamante, G. and García, M. (2009). Organizational Trajectories and Community Empowerment: An Interface Analysis in two localities of the Araucanía Region. Psykhe 18(2), 65-78.
 Montero, M. (2006). Theory and practice of community psychology: the tension between community and society. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidós.
 González Chávez, H. 2007. Global governance and discussions on food security. Desacatos no.25 Mexico sep./dic. 2007.
 Maxwell, S., 1996, Food Security: A Postmodern Perspective, Food Policy, vol. 21, num. 2, pp. 155-170.
 Putnam Heather; Godek Wendy; Kissmann Susanne; Luckson Pierre Jean; Santos Alvarado Humberto; Calix de Dios Hector and Richard Gliessman Stephen. 2014. Coupling Agroecology and PAR to Identify Appropriate Food Security and Sovereignty Strategies in Indigenous Communities. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38:165–198.
 Loring Philip and Gerlach Craig, 2015. Searching for Progress on Food Security in the North American North: A Research Synthesis and Meta-analysis of the Peer-Reviewed Literature. Arctic vol. 68, no. 3 (september 2015) p. 380-392
 Fazzino, D.V., and Loring, P.A. 2009. From crisis to cumulative effects: Food security challenges in Alaska. NAPA Bulletin 32(1):152 – 177. Accessed on 12/11/2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4797.2009.01033.x
 Skinner, K., Hanning, R.M., and Tsuji, L.J. 2014. Prevalence and severity of household food insecurity of First Nations people living in an on-reserve, sub-Arctic community within the Mushkegowuk Territory. Public Health Nutrition 17(1):31-39. Accessed on 13/11/2016 from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013001705
 Loring, P.A., Duffy, L.K., and Murray, M.S. 2010. A risk-benefit analysis of wild fish consumption for various species in Alaska reveals shortcomings in data and monitoring needs. Science of the Total Environment 408(20): 4532 – 4541. Accessed on 13/11/2016 from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.013
 Schuster, R.C., Gamberg, M., Dickson, C., and Chan, H.M. 2011. Assessing risk of mercury exposure and nutritional benefits of consumption of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation community of Old Crow, Yukon, Canada. Environmental Research 111(6): 881 – 887. Accessed on 14/11/2016 from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.05.025
 Wesche, S.D., and Chan, H.M. 2010. Adapting to the impacts of climate change on food security among Inuit in the western Canadian Arctic. EcoHealth 7(3): 361 – 373. Accessed on 14/11/2016 from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-010-0344-8
 McNeeley, S.M. 2012. Examining barriers and opportunities for sustainable adaptation to climate change in Interior Alaska. Climatic Change 111(3-4): 835 – 857. Accessed on 15/11/2016 from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0158-x
 Gadamus, L. 2013. Linkages between human health and ocean health: A participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 72(S1): 20715. Accessed on 15/11/2016 from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v72i0.20715
 Beuchelt Tina Dessire and Badstue Lone 2013. Gender, nutrition- and climate-smart food production: Opportunities and trade-offs. Food Security. 5:709–721
 Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA): User and application manual. 2012. Scientific Committee of the ELCSA. FAO.
 Statistical Methods. Herbert Arkin, Raymond R. Colton, Ed. Continental, 1981.