@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10003168,
	  title     = {Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey},
	  author    = {Lee Suan Chua},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {This study investigated the effects of thermal
treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and
heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out
in a temperature controlled water batch at 90oC for 4 hours. The
honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm
diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results
found that the thermal treatment produced not only
hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as
phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of
honey protein was due to the detection of free amino acids such as
cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar
dehydration was also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was
identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass
fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as
the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60
mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the
colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the
principal component analysis, the score plot clearly shows that the
chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2
hours of heating at 90oC.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering},
	  volume    = {9},
	  number    = {12},
	  year      = {2015},
	  pages     = {1269 - 1273},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10003168},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/108},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 108, 2015},