@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10003048,
	  title     = {Surface Thermodynamics Approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-TB) – Human Sputum Interactions},
	  author    = {J. L. Chukwuneke and  C. H. Achebe and  S. N. Omenyi},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {This research work presents the surface
thermodynamics approach to M-TB/HIV-Human sputum
interactions. This involved the use of the Hamaker coefficient
concept as a surface energetics tool in determining the interaction
processes, with the surface interfacial energies explained using van
der Waals concept of particle interactions. The Lifshitz derivation for
van der Waals forces was applied as an alternative to the contact
angle approach which has been widely used in other biological
systems. The methodology involved taking sputum samples from
twenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for
absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible
Spectrophotometer. The variables required for the computations with
the Lifshitz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The
Matlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the
data produced from the experiments (absorbance values). The
Hamaker constants and the combined Hamaker coefficients were
obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the
Lifshitz Equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficients
A132abs and A131abs on both infected and uninfected sputum samples
gave the values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule for M-TB infected
sputum and Ã132abs = 0.18825x10-21Joule for M-TB/HIV infected
sputum. The significance of this result is the positive value of the
absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which suggests the existence
of net positive van der waals forces demonstrating an attraction
between the bacteria and the macrophage. This however, implies that
infection can occur. It was also shown that in the presence of HIV,
the interaction energy is reduced by 13% conforming adverse effects
observed in HIV patients suffering from tuberculosis.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Computer and Systems Engineering},
	  volume    = {9},
	  number    = {12},
	  year      = {2015},
	  pages     = {835 - 843},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10003048},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/108},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 108, 2015},