{"title":"Designing Offshore Pipelines Facing the Geohazard of Active Seismic Faults","authors":"Maria S. Trimintziou, Michael G. Sakellariou, Prodromos N. Psarropoulos","volume":102,"journal":"International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering","pagesStart":775,"pagesEnd":785,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/10002816","abstract":"The current study focuses on the seismic design of\r\noffshore pipelines against active faults. After an extensive literature\r\nreview of the provisions of the seismic norms worldwide and of the\r\navailable analytical methods, the study simulates numerically\r\n(through finite-element modeling and strain-based criteria) the\r\ndistress of offshore pipelines subjected to PGDs induced by active\r\nnormal and reverse seismic faults at the seabed. Factors, such as the\r\ngeometrical properties of the fault, the mechanical properties of the\r\nruptured soil formations, and the pipeline characteristics, are\r\nexamined. After some interesting conclusions regarding the seismic\r\nvulnerability of offshore pipelines, potential cost-effective mitigation\r\nmeasures are proposed taking into account constructability issues.","references":"[1] ISO 19901-2, Petroleum and natural gas industries-Specific\r\nrequirements for offshore structures, Part 2- Seismic design procedures\r\nand criteria, 2004.\r\n[2] American Petroleum Institute, Recommended practice 1111, fourth\r\nedition, Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Offshore\r\nHydrocarbon Pipelines (Limit State Design), December 2009.\r\n[3] DNV, Offshore Standard-F101, Submarine pipeline systems, 2012\r\n[4] Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 4: Silos,\r\ntanks and pipelines, CEN-ENV, European Committee for\r\nStandardization, Brussels, 2006.\r\n[5] IITK-GSDMA, Guidelines for seismic design of buried pipelines,\r\nNICEE, India, 2007.\r\n[6] American Lifelines Alliance \u2013 ASCE, Guidelines for the design of\r\nburied steel pipe, 2001.\r\n[7] Konagai K. et al., \u201cKey Points for Rational Design for Civil\r\nInfrastructures near Seismic Faults Reflecting Soil-Structure Interaction\r\nFeatures\u201d, Report of JSPS research project, grant-in-aid for scientific\r\nresearch (A) Project No.16208048, 2006.\r\n[8] Hamada, M. \u201cMeasures and designs of lifelines against fault-induced\r\nground surface ruptures,\u201d Seismic Fault Induced Failures, Workshop,\r\nJSCE (Konagai, K., Hori, M., Meguro, K. and Koseki, J., eds.), pp. 119\u2013\r\n130, 2003.\r\n[9] Newmark N.M., Hall W.J., \u201cPipeline Design to Resist Large Fault\r\nDisplacement\u201d, Proceedings of the 1975 U.S. National Conference on\r\nEarthquake Engineering, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 416-425, 1975\r\n[10] Kennedy R.P., Chow A.W., Williamson R.A, \u201cFault movement effects\r\non buried oil pipeline\u201d, Journal of the Transportation Engineering\r\nDivision, ASCE, 1977, vol.103, pp. 617\u201333.\r\n[11] Wang L.R.L., Yeh Y., \u201cA refined seismic analysis and design of buried\r\npipeline for fault movement\u201d, Journal of Earthquake Engineering and\r\nStructural Dynamics, 1985, vol. 13, pp. 75\u201396.\r\n[12] Karamitros D., Bouckovalas G., Kouretzis G., \u201cStress Analysis of buried\r\nSteel Pipelines at Strike-Slip Fault Crossings\u201d, Soil Dynamics and\r\nEarthquake Engineering, 2007, vol. 27, pp. 200-211.\r\n[13] Trifonov OV, Cherniy VP., \u201cA semi-analytical approach to a nonlinear\r\nstress-strain analysis of buried steel pipes crossing active faults\u201d,\r\nEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2010, vol. 30(11),\r\npp. 1298-208.\r\n[14] Karamitros D., Bouckovalas G., Kouretzis G., \u201cAn analytical method for\r\nstrength verification of buried steel pipelines at normal fault crossings\u201d,\r\nSoil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2011, vol. 31, pp. 1452-\r\n1464.\r\n[15] Trifonov OV, Cherniy VP, \u201cElastoplastic stress\u2013strain analysis of buried\r\nsteel pipelines subjected to fault displacements with account for service\r\nloads\u201d, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2012, vol. 33,\r\npp. 54-62.\r\n[16] O\u2019Rourke MJ, Liu X., Seismic design of buried and offshore pipelines,\r\nMonograph Series, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering\r\nResearch, (MCEER), 2012.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 102, 2015"}