%0 Journal Article
	%A A. van Onselen and  C. M. Walsh and  F. J. Veldman and  C. Brand
	%D 2015
	%J International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 103, 2015
	%T The Impact of Geophagia on the Iron Status of Black South African Women
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10002672
	%V 103
	%X Objectives: To determine the nutritional status and
risk factors associated with women practicing geophagia in QwaQwa,
South Africa. Materials and Methods: An observational epidemiological study
design was adopted which included an exposed (geophagia) and nonexposed
(control) group. A food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were applied to
determine nutritional status of participants. Logistic regression
analysis was performed in order to identify factors that were likely to
be associated with the practice of geophagia. Results: The mean total energy intake for the geophagia group (G)
and control group (C) were 10324.31 ± 2755.00 kJ and 10763.94 ±
2556.30 kJ respectively. Both groups fell within the overweight
category according to the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of each
group (G= 25.59 kg/m2; C= 25.14 kg/m2). The mean serum iron
levels of the geophagia group (6.929 μmol/l) were significantly lower
than that of the control group (13.75 μmol/l) (p = 0.000). Serum
transferrin (G=3.23g/l; C=2.7054g/l) and serum transferrin saturation
(G=8.05%; C=18.74%) levels also differed significantly between
groups (p=0.00). Factors that were associated with the practice of
geophagia included haemoglobin (Odds ratio (OR):14.50), serumiron
(OR: 9.80), serum-ferritin (OR: 3.75), serum-transferrin (OR:
6.92) and transferrin saturation (OR: 14.50). A significant negative
association (p=0.014) was found between women who were wageearners
and those who were not wage-earners and the practice of
geophagia (OR: 0.143; CI: 0.027; 0.755). These findings seem to
indicate that a permanent income may decrease the likelihood of
practising geophagia. Key Findings: Geophagia was confirmed to be a risk factor for
iron deficiency in this community. The significantly strong
association between geophagia and iron deficiency emphasizes the
importance of identifying the practice of geophagia in women,
especially during their child bearing years.
	%P 824 - 829