@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10002649,
	  title     = {Health Psychology Intervention – Identifying Early Symptoms in Neurological Disorders},
	  author    = {Simon B. N. Thompson},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune
system and pathological yawning is a symptom of multiple sclerosis
(MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically
rises when the muscles are moved – extended or flexed; and yawning
has been shown to be highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy
people as shown in the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis. It is likely
that these elevated cortisol levels are also seen in people with MS.
The possible link between EMG in the jaw muscles and rises in saliva
cortisol levels during yawning were investigated in a randomized
controlled trial of 60 volunteers aged 18-69 years who were exposed
to conditions that were designed to elicit the yawning response.
Saliva samples were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the
end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence
of a yawn, and EMG data was additionally collected during rest and
yawning phases. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning
Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic,
and health details were collected and the following exclusion criteria
were adopted: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart
condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy,
multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found
between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p
= 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and poststimuli,
which was non-significant. There were also significant
differences between yawners and non-yawners for the EMG
potentials with the yawners having higher rest and post-yawning
potentials. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson
Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are
associated with the yawning response. Further research is underway
to explore the use of cortisol as a potential diagnostic tool as an assist
to the early diagnosis of symptoms related to neurological disorders.
Bournemouth University Research & Ethics approval granted:
JC28/1/13-KA6/9/13. Professional code of conduct, confidentiality,
and safety issues have been addressed and approved in the Ethics
submission. Trials identification number: ISRCTN61942768.
	    journal   = {International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences},
	  volume    = {9},
	  number    = {4},
	  year      = {2015},
	  pages     = {356 - 360},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10002649},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/100},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 100, 2015},