{"title":"Achieving Net Zero Energy Building in a Hot Climate Using Integrated Photovoltaic and Parabolic trough Collectors","authors":"Adel A. Ghoneim","country":null,"institution":"","volume":103,"journal":"International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering","pagesStart":703,"pagesEnd":710,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/10002413","abstract":"In most existing buildings in hot climate, cooling\r\nloads lead to high primary energy consumption and consequently\r\nhigh CO2 emissions. These can be substantially decreased with\r\nintegrated renewable energy systems. Kuwait is characterized by its\r\ndry hot long summer and short warm winter. Kuwait receives annual\r\ntotal radiation more than 5280 MJ\/m2 with approximately 3347 h of\r\nsunshine. Solar energy systems consist of PV modules and parabolic\r\ntrough collectors are considered to satisfy electricity consumption,\r\ndomestic water heating, and cooling loads of an existing building.\r\nThis paper presents the results of an extensive program of energy\r\nconservation and energy generation using integrated photovoltaic\r\n(PV) modules and Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTC). The program\r\nconducted on an existing institutional building intending to convert it\r\ninto a Net-Zero Energy Building (NZEB) or near net Zero Energy\r\nBuilding (nNZEB). The program consists of two phases; the first\r\nphase is concerned with energy auditing and energy conservation\r\nmeasures at minimum cost and the second phase considers the\r\ninstallation of photovoltaic modules and parabolic trough collectors.\r\nThe 2-storey building under consideration is the Applied Sciences\r\nDepartment at the College of Technological Studies, Kuwait. Single\r\neffect lithium bromide water absorption chillers are implemented to\r\nprovide air conditioning load to the building. A numerical model is\r\ndeveloped to evaluate the performance of parabolic trough collectors\r\nin Kuwait climate. Transient simulation program (TRNSYS) is\r\nadapted to simulate the performance of different solar system\r\ncomponents. In addition, a numerical model is developed to assess\r\nthe environmental impacts of building integrated renewable energy\r\nsystems. Results indicate that efficient energy conservation can play\r\nan important role in converting the existing buildings into NZEBs as\r\nit saves a significant portion of annual energy consumption of the\r\nbuilding. The first phase results in an energy conservation of about\r\n28% of the building consumption. In the second phase, the integrated\r\nPV completely covers the lighting and equipment loads of the\r\nbuilding. On the other hand, parabolic trough collectors of optimum\r\narea of 765 m2 can satisfy a significant portion of the cooling load,\r\ni.e about73% of the total building cooling load. The annual avoided\r\nCO2 emission is evaluated at the optimum conditions to assess the\r\nenvironmental impacts of renewable energy systems. The total annual\r\navoided CO2 emission is about 680 metric ton\/year which confirms\r\nthe environmental impacts of these systems in Kuwait.","references":null,"publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 103, 2015"}