@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10002269,
	  title     = {Robust Batch Process Scheduling in Pharmaceutical Industries: A Case Study},
	  author    = {Tommaso Adamo and  Gianpaolo Ghiani and  Antonio D. Grieco and  Emanuela Guerriero},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Batch production plants provide a wide range of
scheduling problems. In pharmaceutical industries a batch process
is usually described by a recipe, consisting of an ordering of tasks
to produce the desired product. In this research work we focused
on pharmaceutical production processes requiring the culture of
a microorganism population (i.e. bacteria, yeasts or antibiotics).
Several sources of uncertainty may influence the yield of the culture
processes, including (i) low performance and quality of the cultured
microorganism population or (ii) microbial contamination. For
these reasons, robustness is a valuable property for the considered
application context. In particular, a robust schedule will not collapse
immediately when a cell of microorganisms has to be thrown away
due to a microbial contamination. Indeed, a robust schedule should
change locally in small proportions and the overall performance
measure (i.e. makespan, lateness) should change a little if at all.
In this research work we formulated a constraint programming
optimization (COP) model for the robust planning of antibiotics
production. We developed a discrete-time model with a multi-criteria
objective, ordering the different criteria and performing a
lexicographic optimization. A feasible solution of the proposed
COP model is a schedule of a given set of tasks onto available
resources. The schedule has to satisfy tasks precedence constraints,
resource capacity constraints and time constraints. In particular
time constraints model tasks duedates and resource availability
time windows constraints. To improve the schedule robustness, we
modeled the concept of (a, b) super-solutions, where (a, b) are input
parameters of the COP model. An (a, b) super-solution is one in
which if a variables (i.e. the completion times of a culture tasks)
lose their values (i.e. cultures are contaminated), the solution can be
repaired by assigning these variables values with a new values (i.e.
the completion times of a backup culture tasks) and at most b other
variables (i.e. delaying the completion of at most b other tasks).
The efficiency and applicability of the proposed model is
demonstrated by solving instances taken from a real-life
pharmaceutical company. Computational results showed that
the determined super-solutions are near-optimal.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Mathematical and Computational Sciences},
	  volume    = {9},
	  number    = {7},
	  year      = {2015},
	  pages     = {401 - 404},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10002269},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/103},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 103, 2015},