Offering a Product-Service System (PSS) is a

\r\nwell-accepted strategy that companies may adopt to provide a set of

\r\nsystemic solutions to customers. PSSs were initially provided in a

\r\nsimple form but now take diversified and complex forms involving

\r\nmultiple services, products and technologies. With the growing

\r\ninterest in the PSS, frameworks for the PSS development have been

\r\nintroduced by many researchers. However, most of the existing

\r\nframeworks fail to examine various relations existing in a complex

\r\nPSS. Since designing a complex PSS involves full integration of

\r\nmultiple products and services, it is essential to identify not only

\r\nproduct-service relations but also product-product\/ service-service

\r\nrelations. It is also equally important to specify how they are related

\r\nfor better understanding of the system. Moreover, as customers tend to

\r\nview their purchase from a more holistic perspective, a PSS should be

\r\ndeveloped based on the whole system’s requirements, rather than

\r\nfocusing only on the product requirements or service requirements.

\r\nThus, we propose a framework to develop a complex PSS that is

\r\ncoordinated fully with the requirements of both worlds. Specifically,

\r\nour approach adopts a multi-domain matrix (MDM). A MDM

\r\nidentifies not only inter-domain relations but also intra-domain

\r\nrelations so that it helps to design a PSS that includes highly desired

\r\nand closely related core functions\/ features. Also, various dependency

\r\ntypes and rating schemes proposed in our approach would help the

\r\nintegration process.<\/p>\r\n","references":"[1] X. Geng, X. Chu, D. Xue, and Z. Zhang, \u201cAn integrated approach for\r\nrating engineering characteristics\u2019 final importance in product-service\r\nsystem development,\u201d Comput. Ind. Eng., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 585\u2013594,\r\n2010.\r\n[2] M. B. Cook, T. A. Bhamra, and M. Lemon, \u201cThe transfer and application\r\nof product service systems from academia to UK manufacturing firms,\u201d J.\r\nClean. Prod., vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 1455\u20131465, 2006.\r\n[3] G. V. A. Vasantha, R. Roy, A. Lelah, and D. Brissaud, \u201cA review of\r\nproduct\u2013service systems design methodologies,\u201d J. Eng. Design, vol. 23,\r\nno. 9, pp. 635\u2013659, 2012.\r\n[4] T. S. Baines, H. W. Lightfoot, S. Evans, A. Neely, R. Greenough, J.\r\nPeppard, R. Roy, E. Shehab, A. Braganza, A. Tiwari, J. R. Alcock, J. P.\r\nAngus, M. Bastl, A. Cousens, P. Irving, M. Johnson, J. Kingston, H.\r\nLockett, V. Martinez, P. Michele, D. Tranfield, I.M. Walton, and H.\r\nWilson, \u201cState-of-the-art in product-service systems,\u201d in Proc. IMechE,\r\nPart B: J. Engineering Manufacture, 2007, pp. 1543\u20131552.\r\n[5] S. D. Eppinger, and T. R. Browning, Design Structure Matrix Methods\r\nand Applications. Massachusetts: MIT press, 2012.\r\n[6] A. Rai and V. Sambamurthy, \u201cEditorial notes-the growth of interest in\r\nservices management: Opportunities for information systems scholars,\u201d\r\nInform. Syst. Res., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 327\u2013331, 2006.\r\n[7] R. Orawski, C. Hepperle, M. M\u00f6rtl, and U. Lindemann, \u201cA framework for\r\na Product-Service-System Portfolio: Managing the early planning,\u201d in\r\nProc. 11th Int. Design Conf., Dubrovnik, 2010, pp. 371\u2013380.\r\n[8] M. Goedkoop, C. van Haler, H. te Riele, and P. Rommers, \u201cProduct\r\nService-Systems, ecological and economic basics,\u201d Report for Dutch\r\nMinistries of Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ), 1999.\r\n[9] A. Burger, V. Bittel, R. Awad, and J. Ovtcharova, \u201cDesign for\r\ncustomer\u2014Sustainable customer integrations into the development\r\nprocesses of product-service system providers,\u201d in Proc. MECIT Int. Conf.\r\nApplied Information and Communications Technology, Muscat, 2011, pp.\r\n22\u201323.\r\n[10] N. Morelli, \u201cDesigning product service systems: A methodological\r\nexploration 1,\u201d Design Issues, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 3\u201317, 2002.\r\n[11] T. R. Browning, \u201cApplying the design structure matrix to system\r\ndecomposition and integration problems a review and new directions,\u201d\r\nIEEE T. Eng. Manage., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 292\u2013306, 2001.\r\n[12] T. U. Pimmler and S. D. Eppinger, \u201cIntegration analysis of product\r\ndecompositions,\u201d in Proc. ASME 6th Int. Conf. Design Theory and\r\nMethodology, Minneapolis, 1994, pp. 343\u2013351.\r\n[13] M. Danilovic, and T. R. Browning, \u201cManaging complex product\r\ndevelopment projects with design structure matrices and domain mapping\r\nmatrices,\u201d Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 300\u2013314, 2007.\r\n[14] U. Lindemann, and M. Maurer, \u201cFacing multi-domain complexity in\r\nproduct development,\u201d in The Future of Product Development. Berlin:\r\nSpringer-Verlag, 2007, pp. 351\u2013361\r\n[15] W. T. McCormick Jr, P. J. Schweitzer, and T. W. White, \u201cProblem\r\ndecomposition and data reorganization by a clustering technique,\u201d Oper.\r\nRes., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 993\u20131009, 1972.\r\n[16] L. Bongulielmi, P. Henseler, C. Puls, and M. Meier, \u201cThe K-and\r\nV-Matrix Method\u2013an approach in analysis and description of variant\r\nproduct,\u201d in Proc. Int. Conf. Engineering Design (ICED 2001), Glasgow.\r\n[17] C. P. Govers, \u201cWhat and how about quality function deployment (QFD),\u201d\r\nInt. J. of Prod. Econ., vol. 46, pp. 575\u2013585, 1996.\r\n[18] A. Yassine, D. Whitney, S. Daleiden, and J. Lavine, \u201cConnectivity maps:\r\nmodeling and analysing relationships in product development processes,\u201d\r\nJ. Eng. Design, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 377\u2013394, 2003.\r\n[19] M. S. Maurer, Structural Awareness in Complex Product Design. Diss.\r\nUniversit\u00e4t M\u00fcnchen, 2007.\r\n[20] Y. An, S. Lee, and Y. Park, \u201cDevelopment of an integrated\r\nproduct-service roadmap with QFD: A case study on mobile\r\ncommunications,\u201d Int. J. Serv. Ind. Manag., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 621\u2013638,\r\n2008.\r\n[21] R. Helmer, A. Yassine, and C. Meier, \u201cSystematic module and interface\r\ndefinition using component design structure matrix,\u201d J. Eng. Design, vol.\r\n21, no. 6, pp. 647\u2013, 675. ","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 99, 2015"}