Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

shallow foundation Related Publications

5 Assessment of Pier Foundations for Onshore Wind Turbines in Non-cohesive Soil

Authors: Jann-Eike Saathoff, Martin Achmus, Mauricio Terceros

Abstract:

In non-cohesive soil, onshore wind turbines are often found on shallow foundations with a circular or octagonal shape. For the current generation of wind turbines, shallow foundations with very large breadths are required. The foundation support costs thus represent a considerable portion of the total construction costs. Therefore, an economic optimization of the type of foundation is highly desirable. A conceivable alternative foundation type would be a pier foundation, which combines the load transfer over the foundation area at the pier base with the transfer of horizontal loads over the shaft surface of the pier. The present study aims to evaluate the load-bearing behavior of a pier foundation based on comprehensive parametric studies. Thereby, three-dimensional numerical simulations of both pier and shallow foundations are developed. The evaluation of the results focuses on the rotational stiffnesses of the proposed soil-foundation systems. In the design, the initial rotational stiffness is decisive for consideration of natural frequencies, whereas the rotational secant stiffness for a maximum load is decisive for serviceability considerations. A systematic analysis of the results at different load levels shows that the application of the typical pier foundation is presumably limited to relatively small onshore wind turbines.

Keywords: shallow foundation, onshore wind foundation, pier foundation, rotational stiffness of soil-foundation system

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4 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, bearing capacity, shallow foundation, loose sand, settlement equations

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3 Finite Element Analysis of Raft Foundation on Various Soil Types under Earthquake Loading

Authors: Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu, Murtadha A. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

The design of shallow foundations to withstand different dynamic loads has given considerable attention in recent years. Dynamic loads may be due to the earthquakes, pile driving, blasting, water waves, and machine vibrations. But, predicting the behavior of shallow foundations during earthquakes remains a difficult task for geotechnical engineers. A database for dynamic and static parameters for different soils in seismic active zones in Iraq is prepared which has been collected from geophysical and geotechnical investigation works. Then, analysis of a typical 3-D soil-raft foundation system under earthquake loading is carried out using the database. And a parametric study has been carried out taking into consideration the influence of some parameters on the dynamic behavior of the raft foundation, such as raft stiffness, damping ratio as well as the influence of the earthquake acceleration-time records. The results of the parametric study show that the settlement caused by the earthquake can be decreased by about 72% with increasing the thickness from 0.5 m to 1.5 m. But, it has been noticed that reduction in the maximum bending moment by about 82% was predicted by decreasing the raft thickness from 1.5 m to 0.5 m in all sites model. Also, it has been observed that the maximum lateral displacement, the maximum vertical settlement and the maximum bending moment for damping ratio 0% is about 14%, 20%, and 18% higher than that for damping ratio 7.5%, respectively for all sites model.

Keywords: Seismic Behavior, damping ratio, shallow foundation, raft thickness

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2 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali, Sid-Ali Rafa

Abstract:

A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: slope, shallow foundation, numeric method, FLAC 2D

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1 Numerical Study of Cyclic Behavior of Shallow Foundations on Sand Reinforced with Geogrid and Grid-Anchor

Authors: Alireza Hajiani Boushehrian, Nader Hataf, Arsalan Ghahramani

Abstract:

When the foundations of structures under cyclic loading with amplitudes less than their permissible load, the concern exists often for the amount of uniform and non-uniform settlement of such structures. Storage tank foundations with numerous filling and discharging and railways ballast course under repeating transportation loads are examples of such conditions. This paper deals with the effects of using the new generation of reinforcements, Grid-Anchor, for the purpose of reducing the permanent settlement of these foundations under the influence of different proportions of the ultimate load. Other items such as the type and the number of reinforcements as well as the number of loading cycles are studied numerically. Numerical models were made using the Plaxis3D Tunnel finite element code. The results show that by using gridanchor and increasing the number of their layers in the same proportion as that of the cyclic load being applied, the amount of permanent settlement decreases up to 42% relative to unreinforced condition depends on the number of reinforcement layers and percent of applied load and the number of loading cycles to reach a constant value of dimensionless settlement decreases up to 20% relative to unreinforced condition.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Reinforced Soil, cyclic loading, shallow foundation, Grid-Anchor

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