Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Segmentation Related Publications

61 Segmentation of Arabic Handwritten Numeral Strings Based on Watershed Approach

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Remah W. Al-Khatib, Sameer A. Nooh

Abstract:

Arabic offline handwriting recognition systems are considered as one of the most challenging topics. Arabic Handwritten Numeral Strings are used to automate systems that deal with numbers such as postal code, banking account numbers and numbers on car plates. Segmentation of connected numerals is the main bottleneck in the handwritten numeral recognition system.  This is in turn can increase the speed and efficiency of the recognition system. In this paper, we proposed algorithms for automatic segmentation and feature extraction of Arabic handwritten numeral strings based on Watershed approach. The algorithms have been designed and implemented to achieve the main goal of segmenting and extracting the string of numeral digits written by hand especially in a courtesy amount of bank checks. The segmentation algorithm partitions the string into multiple regions that can be associated with the properties of one or more criteria. The numeral extraction algorithm extracts the numeral string digits into separated individual digit. Both algorithms for segmentation and feature extraction have been tested successfully and efficiently for all types of numerals.

Keywords: Segmentation, Feature Extraction, handwritten numerals, courtesy amount, numeral recognition

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60 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu

Abstract:

Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Character Recognition, chain code frequency, features matching

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59 A Concept Study to Assist Non-Profit Organizations to Better Target Developing Countries

Authors: Malek Makki

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research study is to assist non-profit organizations (NPOs) to better segment a group of least developing countries and to optimally target the most needier areas, so that the provided aids make positive and lasting differences. We applied international marketing and strategy approaches to segment a sub-group of candidates among a group of 151 countries identified by the UN-G77 list, and furthermore, we point out the areas of priorities. We use reliable and well known criteria on the basis of economics, geography, demography and behavioral. These criteria can be objectively estimated and updated so that a follow-up can be performed to measure the outcomes of any program. We selected 12 socio-economic criteria that complement each other: GDP per capita, GDP growth, industry value added, export per capita, fragile state index, corruption perceived index, environment protection index, ease of doing business index, global competitiveness index, Internet use, public spending on education, and employment rate. A weight was attributed to each variable to highlight the relative importance of each criterion within the country. Care was taken to collect the most recent available data from trusted well-known international organizations (IMF, WB, WEF, and WTO). Construct of equivalence was carried out to compare the same variables across countries. The combination of all these weighted estimated criteria provides us with a global index that represents the level of development per country. An absolute index that combines wars and risks was introduced to exclude or include a country on the basis of conflicts and a collapsing state. The final step applied to the included countries consists of a benchmarking method to select the segment of countries and the percentile of each criterion. The results of this study allowed us to exclude 16 countries for risks and security. We also excluded four countries because they lack reliable and complete data. The other countries were classified per percentile thru their global index, and we identified the needier and the areas where aids are highly required to help any NPO to prioritize the area of implementation. This new concept is based on defined, actionable, accessible and accurate variables by which NPO can implement their program and it can be extended to profit companies to perform their corporate social responsibility acts.

Keywords: International Marketing, Segmentation, developing countries, non-profit organization

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58 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Mohammed Talibi Alaoui, Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Segmentation, watershed, fractal, color-texture

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57 Segmentation of Piecewise Polynomial Regression Model by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman

Abstract:

Piecewise polynomial regression model is very flexible model for modeling the data. If the piecewise polynomial regression model is matched against the data, its parameters are not generally known. This paper studies the parameter estimation problem of piecewise polynomial regression model. The method which is used to estimate the parameters of the piecewise polynomial regression model is Bayesian method. Unfortunately, the Bayes estimator cannot be found analytically. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm generates the Markov chain that converges to the limit distribution of the posterior distribution of piecewise polynomial regression model parameter. The resulting Markov chain is used to calculate the Bayes estimator for the parameters of piecewise polynomial regression model.

Keywords: Segmentation, Bayesian, piecewise, reversible Jump MCMC

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56 Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs

Authors: Jungho Moon, Lae-Jeong Park, Kyusoo Chung

Abstract:

This paper introduces an effective method of segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a database system for management of road signs nationwide. We propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96% of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign image.

Keywords: Segmentation, classification, road signs, characters

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55 A Robust and Efficient Segmentation Method Applied for Cardiac Left Ventricle with Abnormal Shapes

Authors: Peifei Zhu, Zisheng Li, Yasuki Kakishita, Mayumi Suzuki, Tomoaki Chono

Abstract:

Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) from cardiac ultrasound images provides a quantitative functional analysis of the heart to diagnose disease. Active Shape Model (ASM) is widely used for LV segmentation, but it suffers from the drawback that initialization of the shape model is not sufficiently close to the target, especially when dealing with abnormal shapes in disease. In this work, a two-step framework is improved to achieve a fast and efficient LV segmentation. First, a robust and efficient detection based on Hough forest localizes cardiac feature points. Such feature points are used to predict the initial fitting of the LV shape model. Second, ASM is applied to further fit the LV shape model to the cardiac ultrasound image. With the robust initialization, ASM is able to achieve more accurate segmentation. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a dataset of 810 cardiac ultrasound images that are mostly abnormal shapes. This proposed method is compared with several combinations of ASM and existing initialization methods. Our experiment results demonstrate that accuracy of the proposed method for feature point detection for initialization was 40% higher than the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed method significantly reduces the number of necessary ASM fitting loops and thus speeds up the whole segmentation process. Therefore, the proposed method is able to achieve more accurate and efficient segmentation results and is applicable to unusual shapes of heart with cardiac diseases, such as left atrial enlargement.

Keywords: Segmentation, active shape model, hough forest, cardiac left ventricle

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54 Detecting Circles in Image Using Statistical Image Analysis

Authors: Fathi M. O. Hamed, Salma F. Elkofhaifee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to detect geometrical shape objects in an image. In this paper, the object is considered to be as a circle shape. The identification requires find three characteristics, which are number, size, and location of the object. To achieve the goal of this work, this paper presents an algorithm that combines from some of statistical approaches and image analysis techniques. This algorithm has been implemented to arrive at the major objectives in this paper. The algorithm has been evaluated by using simulated data, and yields good results, and then it has been applied to real data.

Keywords: Image Processing, Segmentation, threshold, median filter, projection, scalespace

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53 Structural Performance Evaluation of Segmented Wind Turbine Blade through Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Chandrashekhar Bhat, Dilifa J. Noronha, Faber A. Saldanha

Abstract:

Transportation of long turbine blades from one place to another is a difficult process. Hence a feasibility study of modularization of wind turbine blade was taken from structural standpoint through finite element analysis. Initially, a non-segmented blade is modeled and its structural behavior is evaluated to serve as reference. The resonant, static bending and fatigue tests are simulated in accordance with IEC61400-23 standard for comparison purpose. The non-segmented test blade is separated at suitable location based on trade off studies and the segments are joined with an innovative double strap bonded joint configuration. The adhesive joint is modeled by adopting cohesive zone modeling approach in ANSYS. The developed blade model is analyzed for its structural response through simulation. Performances of both the blades are found to be similar, which indicates that, efficient segmentation of the long blade is possible which facilitates easy transportation of the blades and on site reassembling. The location selected for segmentation and adopted joint configuration has resulted in an efficient segmented blade model which proves the methodology adopted for segmentation was quite effective. The developed segmented blade appears to be the viable alternative considering its structural response specifically in fatigue within considered assumptions.

Keywords: Segmentation, Fatigue, wind turbine blade, cohesive zone modeling

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52 Demographics Are Not Enough: Targeting and Segmentation of Anti-Obesity Campaigns in Mexico

Authors: D. Wrzecionkowska

Abstract:

Mass media campaigns against obesity are often designed to impact large audiences. This usually means that their audience is defined based on general demographic characteristics like age, gender, occupation etc., not taking into account psychographics like behavior, motivations, wants, etc. Using psychographics, as the base for the audience segmentation, is a common practice in case of successful campaigns, as it allows developing more relevant messages. It also serves a purpose of identifying key segments, those that generate the best return on investment. For a health campaign, that would be segments that have the best chance of being converted into healthy lifestyle at the lowest cost. This paper presents the limitations of the demographic targeting, based on the findings from the reception study of IMSS (Mexican Social Security Institute) antiobesity TV commercials and proposes mothers as the first level of segmentation, in the process of identifying the key segment for these campaigns.

Keywords: Segmentation, Mothers, anti-obesity campaigns, targeting

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51 Satellite Rainfall Prediction Techniques - A State of the Art Review

Authors: N. Shanthi, S. Sarumathi, S. Vidhya

Abstract:

In the present world, predicting rainfall is considered to be an essential and also a challenging task. Normally, the climate and rainfall are presumed to have non-linear as well as intricate phenomena. For predicting accurate rainfall, we necessitate advanced computer modeling and simulation. When there is an enhanced understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation then it becomes enrichment to applications such as hydrologic, climatic and ecological. Conversely, there may be some kind of challenges occur in the community due to some application which results in the absence of consistent precipitation observation in remote and also emerging region. This survey paper provides a multifarious collection of methodologies which are epitomized by various researchers for predicting the rainfall. It also gives information about some technique to forecast rainfall, which is appropriate to all methods like numerical, traditional and statistical.

Keywords: Clustering, Segmentation, classification, Feature Extraction, satellite image, Precipitation Estimation

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50 Obstacle Classification Method Based On 2D LIDAR Database

Authors: Moohyun Lee, Soojung Hur, Yongwan Park

Abstract:

We propose obstacle classification method based on 2D LIDAR Database. The existing obstacle classification method based on 2D LIDAR, has an advantage in terms of accuracy and shorter calculation time. However, it was difficult to classifier the type of obstacle and therefore accurate path planning was not possible. In order to overcome this problem, a method of classifying obstacle type based on width data of obstacle was proposed. However, width data was not sufficient to improve accuracy. In this paper, database was established by width and intensity data; the first classification was processed by the width data; the second classification was processed by the intensity data; classification was processed by comparing to database; result of obstacle classification was determined by finding the one with highest similarity values. An experiment using an actual autonomous vehicle under real environment shows that calculation time declined in comparison to 3D LIDAR and it was possible to classify obstacle using single 2D LIDAR.

Keywords: Database, Segmentation, classification, Lidar, intensity, obstacle, width

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49 Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Using Possibilistic C-Means Algorithm for Evaluation of Facial Surgeries

Authors: Hossein Ahmadi, Elham Alaee, Mousa Shamsi, Soroosh Nazem, Mohammadhossein Sedaaghi

Abstract:

Human face has a fundamental role in the appearance of individuals. So the importance of facial surgeries is undeniable. Thus, there is a need for the appropriate and accurate facial skin segmentation in order to extract different features. Since Fuzzy CMeans (FCM) clustering algorithm doesn’t work appropriately for noisy images and outliers, in this paper we exploit Possibilistic CMeans (PCM) algorithm in order to segment the facial skin. For this purpose, first, we convert facial images from RGB to YCbCr color space. To evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm, the database of Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran was used. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; FCM and Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms are also used for facial skin segmentation. The proposed method shows better results than the other segmentation methods. Results include misclassification error (0.032) and the region’s area error (0.045) for the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Segmentation, facial image, PCM, FCM, skin error, facial surgery

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48 Level Set and Morphological Operation Techniques in Application of Dental Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad, Alireza Norouzi

Abstract:

Medical image analysis is one of the great effects of computer image processing. There are several processes to analysis the medical images which the segmentation process is one of the challenging and most important step. In this paper the segmentation method proposed in order to segment the dental radiograph images. Thresholding method has been applied to simplify the images and to morphologically open binary image technique performed to eliminate the unnecessary regions on images. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical integral projection techniques used to extract the each individual tooth from radiograph images. Segmentation process has been done by applying the level set method on each extracted images. Nevertheless, the experiments results by 90% accuracy demonstrate that proposed method achieves high accuracy and promising result.

Keywords: Segmentation, integral production, level set method, morphological operation

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47 Automatic Detection of Breast Tumors in Sonoelastographic Images Using DWT

Authors: A. Sindhuja, V. Sadasivam

Abstract:

Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. Earlier the detection of cancer, better the treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of the cancer rely on segmentation of Sonoelastographic images. Texture features has not considered for Sonoelastographic segmentation. Sonoelastographic images of 15 patients containing both benign and malignant tumorsare considered for experimentation.The images are enhanced to remove noise in order to improve contrast and emphasize tumor boundary. It is then decomposed into sub-bands using single level Daubechies wavelets varying from single co-efficient to six coefficients. The Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features are extracted and then selected by ranking it using Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS) technique from each sub-band. The resultant images undergo K-Means clustering and then few post-processing steps to remove the false spots. The tumor boundary is detected from the segmented image. It is proposed that Local Binary Pattern (LBP) from the vertical coefficients of Daubechies wavelet with two coefficients is best suited for segmentation of Sonoelastographic breast images among the wavelet members using one to six coefficients for decomposition. The results are also quantified with the help of an expert radiologist. The proposed work can be used for further diagnostic process to decide if the segmented tumor is benign or malignant.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Segmentation, Sonoelastography, Tumor Detection

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46 Segmenting Ultrasound B-Mode Images Using RiIG Distributions and Stochastic Optimization

Authors: N. Mpofu, M. Sears

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for delineating the endocardial wall from a human heart ultrasound scan. We assume that the gray levels in the ultrasound images are independent and identically distributed random variables with different Rician Inverse Gaussian (RiIG) distributions. Both synthetic and real clinical data will be used for testing the algorithm. Algorithm performance will be evaluated using the expert radiologist evaluation of a soft copy of an ultrasound scan during the scanning process and secondly, doctor’s conclusion after going through a printed copy of the same scan. Successful implementation of this algorithm should make it possible to differentiate normal from abnormal soft tissue and help disease identification, what stage the disease is in and how best to treat the patient. We hope that an automated system that uses this algorithm will be useful in public hospitals especially in Third World countries where problems such as shortage of skilled radiologists and shortage of ultrasound machines are common. These public hospitals are usually the first and last stop for most patients in these countries.

Keywords: Segmentation, ultrasound images, Endorcardial Wall, Rician Inverse Distributions

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45 White Blood Cells Identification and Counting from Microscopic Blood Image

Authors: Lorenzo Putzu, Cecilia Di Ruberto

Abstract:

The counting and analysis of blood cells allows the evaluation and diagnosis of a vast number of diseases. In particular, the analysis of white blood cells (WBCs) is a topic of great interest to hematologists. Nowadays the morphological analysis of blood cells is performed manually by skilled operators. This involves numerous drawbacks, such as slowness of the analysis and a nonstandard accuracy, dependent on the operator skills. In literature there are only few examples of automated systems in order to analyze the white blood cells, most of which only partial. This paper presents a complete and fully automatic method for white blood cells identification from microscopic images. The proposed method firstly individuates white blood cells from which, subsequently, nucleus and cytoplasm are extracted. The whole work has been developed using MATLAB environment, in particular the Image Processing Toolbox.

Keywords: Segmentation, Biomedical Image Processing, automatic detection, White blood cell analysis

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44 Automation of Fishhooks Objective Measures

Authors: S. Chabrier, G. Molle, E. Conte, C. Carlier

Abstract:

Fishing has always been an essential component of the Polynesians- life. Fishhooks, mostly in pearl shell, found during archaeological excavations are the artifacts related to this activity the most numerous. Thanks to them, we try to reconstruct the ancient techniques of resources exploitation, inside the lagoons and offshore. They can also be used as chronological and cultural indicators. The shapes and dimensions of these artifacts allow comparisons and classifications used in both functional approach and chrono-cultural perspective. Hence it is very important for the ethno-archaeologists to dispose of reliable methods and standardized measurement of these artifacts. Such a reliable objective and standardized method have been previously proposed. But this method cannot be envisaged manually because of the very important time required to measure each fishhook manually and the quantity of fishhooks to measure (many hundreds). We propose in this paper a detailed acquisition protocol of fishhooks and an automation of every step of this method. We also provide some experimental results obtained on the fishhooks coming from three archaeological excavations sites.

Keywords: Segmentation, Extraction, Automated measures, fishhook

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43 Event Template Generation for News Articles

Authors: A. Kowcika, E. Umamaheswari, T.V. Geetha

Abstract:

In this paper we focus on event extraction from Tamil news article. This system utilizes a scoring scheme for extracting and grouping event-specific sentences. Using this scoring scheme eventspecific clustering is performed for multiple documents. Events are extracted from each document using a scoring scheme based on feature score and condition score. Similarly event specific sentences are clustered from multiple documents using this scoring scheme. The proposed system builds the Event Template based on user specified query. The templates are filled with event specific details like person, location and timeline extracted from the formed clusters. The proposed system applies these methodologies for Tamil news articles that have been enconverted into UNL graphs using a Tamil to UNL-enconverter. The main intention of this work is to generate an event based template.

Keywords: Segmentation, event extraction, Score based Clustering, Template Generation

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42 Bridging Quantitative and Qualitative of Glaucoma Detection

Authors: Zamalia Mahmud, Noor Elaiza Abdul Khalid, Noorhayati Mohamed Noor, Saadiah Yahya, and Norharyati Md Ariff

Abstract:

Glaucoma diagnosis involves extracting three features of the fundus image; optic cup, optic disc and vernacular. Present manual diagnosis is expensive, tedious and time consuming. A number of researches have been conducted to automate this process. However, the variability between the diagnostic capability of an automated system and ophthalmologist has yet to be established. This paper discusses the efficiency and variability between ophthalmologist opinion and digital technique; threshold. The efficiency and variability measures are based on image quality grading; poor, satisfactory or good. The images are separated into four channels; gray, red, green and blue. A scientific investigation was conducted on three ophthalmologists who graded the images based on the image quality. The images are threshold using multithresholding and graded as done by the ophthalmologist. A comparison of grade from the ophthalmologist and threshold is made. The results show there is a small variability between result of ophthalmologists and digital threshold.

Keywords: Segmentation, Digital Fundus Image, Glaucoma Detection, Multithresholding

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41 Boundary Segmentation of Microcalcification using Parametric Active Contours

Authors: Abdul Kadir Jumaat, Siti Salmah Yasiran, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abd Rahman, Aminah Abdul Malek

Abstract:

A mammography image is composed of low contrast area where the breast tissues and the breast abnormalities such as microcalcification can hardly be differentiated by the medical practitioner. This paper presents the application of active contour models (Snakes) for the segmentation of microcalcification in mammography images. Comparison on the microcalcifiation areas segmented by the Balloon Snake, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake, and Distance Snake is done against the true value of the microcalcification area. The true area value is the average microcalcification area in the original mammography image traced by the expert radiologists. From fifty images tested, the result obtained shows that the accuracy of the Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, and Distance Snake in segmenting boundaries of microcalcification are 96.01%, 95.74%, and 95.70% accuracy respectively. This implies that the Balloon Snake is a better segmentation method to locate the exact boundary of a microcalcification region.

Keywords: Segmentation, mammogram, microcalcifications, Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, Distance Snake

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40 Segmentation of Ascending and Descending Aorta in CTA Images

Authors: H. Özkan

Abstract:

In this study, a new and fast algorithm for Ascending Aorta (AscA) and Descending Aorta (DesA) segmentation is presented using Computed Tomography Angiography images. This process is quite important especially at the detection of aortic plaques, aneurysms, calcification or stenosis. The applied method has been carried out at four steps. At first step, lung segmentation is achieved. At the second one, Mediastinum Region (MR) is detected to use in the segmentation. At the third one, images have been applied optimal threshold and components which are outside of the MR were removed. Lastly, identifying and segmentation of AscA and DesA have been carried out. The performance of the applied method is found quite well for radiologists and it gives enough results to the surgeries medically.

Keywords: Segmentation, Ascending aorta (AscA), Descending aorta (DesA), Computed tomography angiography (CTA), Computer aided detection (CAD)

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39 A 3D Approach for Extraction of the Coronaryartery and Quantification of the Stenosis

Authors: Rahil Hosseini, Mahdi Mazinani, S. D. Qanadli, Tim Ellis, Jamshid Dehmeshki

Abstract:

Segmentation and quantification of stenosis is an important task in assessing coronary artery disease. One of the main challenges is measuring the real diameter of curved vessels. Moreover, uncertainty in segmentation of different tissues in the narrow vessel is an important issue that affects accuracy. This paper proposes an algorithm to extract coronary arteries and measure the degree of stenosis. Markovian fuzzy clustering method is applied to model uncertainty arises from partial volume effect problem. The algorithm employs: segmentation, centreline extraction, estimation of orthogonal plane to centreline, measurement of the degree of stenosis. To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility, the approach has been applied to a vascular phantom and the results are compared with real diameter. The results of 10 patient datasets have been visually judged by a qualified radiologist. The results reveal the superiority of the proposed method compared to the Conventional thresholding Method (CTM) on both datasets.

Keywords: Segmentation, Quantification, Fuzzy Clustering, and Markov random field

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38 Automatic Segmentation of Dermoscopy Images Using Histogram Thresholding on Optimal Color Channels

Authors: M. Emre Celebi, Rahil Garnavi, Mohammad Aldeen, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Constantinos Dolianitis, George Varigos

Abstract:

Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards development of a computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most discriminative and effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes a novel automatic segmentation algorithm using color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, which is able to determine the optimal color channel for segmentation of skin lesions. To demonstrate the validity of the algorithm, it is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images and a comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm. The evaluation is carried out by applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. Through ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is shown that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels which results in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-ofthe- art skin lesion segmentation methods, which demonstrates the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed segmentation method.

Keywords: Melanoma, Segmentation, Dermoscopy, Border detection, Color space analysis, Histogram thresholding

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37 Implementing Adaptive Steganography by Exploring the Ycbcr Color Model Characteristics

Authors: Surbhi Gupta, Alka Handa, Parvinder S.Sandhu

Abstract:

Stegnography is a new way of secret communication the most widely used mechanism on account of its simplicity is the use of the least significant bit. We have used the least significant bit (2 LSB and 4 LSB) substitution method. Depending upon the characteristics of the individual portions of cover image we decide whether to use 2 LSB or 4 LSB thus it is an adaptive stegnography technique. We used one of the three channels to behave as indicator to indicate the presence of hidden data in other two channels. The module showed impressive results in terms of capacity to hide the data. In proposed method, instead of using RGB color space directly, YCbCr color space is used to make use of human visual system characteristic.

Keywords: Segmentation, Steganography, YCbCr, StegoImage, Pixel indicator

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36 Image Segmentation Using the K-means Algorithm for Texture Features

Authors: Wan-Ting Lin, Chuen-Horng Lin, Tsung-Ho Wu, Yung-Kuan Chan

Abstract:

This study aims to segment objects using the K-means algorithm for texture features. Firstly, the algorithm transforms color images into gray images. This paper describes a novel technique for the extraction of texture features in an image. Then, in a group of similar features, objects and backgrounds are differentiated by using the K-means algorithm. Finally, this paper proposes a new object segmentation algorithm using the morphological technique. The experiments described include the segmentation of single and multiple objects featured in this paper. The region of an object can be accurately segmented out. The results can help to perform image retrieval and analyze features of an object, as are shown in this paper.

Keywords: Segmentation, k-mean, multiple objects, texturefeatures

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35 Hardware Centric Machine Vision for High Precision Center of Gravity Calculation

Authors: Xin Cheng, Benny Thörnberg, Abdul Waheed Malik, Najeem Lawal

Abstract:

We present a hardware oriented method for real-time measurements of object-s position in video. The targeted application area is light spots used as references for robotic navigation. Different algorithms for dynamic thresholding are explored in combination with component labeling and Center Of Gravity (COG) for highest possible precision versus Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). This method was developed with a low hardware cost in focus having only one convolution operation required for preprocessing of data.

Keywords: Segmentation, position measurement, Dynamic thresholding, sub-pixel precision, center of gravity

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34 Color Image Segmentation using Adaptive Spatial Gaussian Mixture Model

Authors: M.Sujaritha, S. Annadurai

Abstract:

An adaptive spatial Gaussian mixture model is proposed for clustering based color image segmentation. A new clustering objective function which incorporates the spatial information is introduced in the Bayesian framework. The weighting parameter for controlling the importance of spatial information is made adaptive to the image content to augment the smoothness towards piecewisehomogeneous region and diminish the edge-blurring effect and hence the name adaptive spatial finite mixture model. The proposed approach is compared with the spatially variant finite mixture model for pixel labeling. The experimental results with synthetic and Berkeley dataset demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in improving the segmentation and it can be employed in different practical image content understanding applications.

Keywords: Segmentation, Color, mixture model, Adaptive; Spatial

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33 Skin Lesion Segmentation Using Color Channel Optimization and Clustering-based Histogram Thresholding

Authors: M. Emre Celebi, Rahil Garnavi, Mohammad Aldeen, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Constantinos Dolianitis, George Varigos

Abstract:

Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards the automated analysis of malignant melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes an automatic segmentation algorithm based on color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, a process which is able to determine the optimal color channel for detecting the borders in dermoscopy images. The algorithm is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images. A comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm, applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. By performing ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is demonstrated that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels, resulting in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-of-theart skin lesion segmentation methods.

Keywords: Melanoma, Segmentation, Dermoscopy, Border detection, Color space analysis, Histogram thresholding

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32 An Optimal Unsupervised Satellite image Segmentation Approach Based on Pearson System and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization

Authors: Mourad Zribi, Ahmed Ben Hamida, Ahmed Rekik, Mohamed Benjelloun

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimal and unsupervised satellite image segmentation approach based on Pearson system and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization. Such method could be considered as original by the fact that it utilised K-Means clustering algorithm for an optimal initialisation of image class number on one hand and it exploited Pearson system for an optimal statistical distributions- affectation of each considered class on the other hand. Satellite image exploitation requires the use of different approaches, especially those founded on the unsupervised statistical segmentation principle. Such approaches necessitate definition of several parameters like image class number, class variables- estimation and generalised mixture distributions. Use of statistical images- attributes assured convincing and promoting results under the condition of having an optimal initialisation step with appropriated statistical distributions- affectation. Pearson system associated with a k-means clustering algorithm and Stochastic Expectation-Maximization 'SEM' algorithm could be adapted to such problem. For each image-s class, Pearson system attributes one distribution type according to different parameters and especially the Skewness 'β1' and the kurtosis 'β2'. The different adapted algorithms, K-Means clustering algorithm, SEM algorithm and Pearson system algorithm, are then applied to satellite image segmentation problem. Efficiency of those combined algorithms was firstly validated with the Mean Quadratic Error 'MQE' evaluation, and secondly with visual inspection along several comparisons of these unsupervised images- segmentation.

Keywords: Segmentation, satellite image, Unsupervised Classification, Pearson system

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