Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Biomechanics

21 Thermography Evaluation on Facial Temperature Recovery after Elastic Gum

Authors: L. Roseiro, A. Dionísio, J. Fonseca, P. Nicolau

Abstract:

Thermography is a non-radiating and contact-free technology which can be used to monitor skin temperature. The efficiency and safety of thermography technology make it a useful tool for detecting and locating thermal changes in skin surface, characterized by increases or decreases in temperature. This work intends to be a contribution for the use of thermography as a methodology for evaluation of skin temperature in the context of orofacial biomechanics. The study aims to identify the oscillations of skin temperature in the left and right hemiface regions of the masseter muscle, during and after thermal stimulus, and estimate the time required to restore the initial temperature after the application of the stimulus. Using a FLIR T430sc camera, a data acquisition protocol was followed with a group of eight volunteers, aged between 22 and 27 years. The tests were performed in a controlled environment with the volunteers in a comfortably static position. The thermal stimulus involves the use of an ice volume with controlled size and contact surface. The skin surface temperature was recorded in two distinct situations, namely without further stimulus and with the additions of a stimulus obtained by a chewing gum. The data obtained were treated using FLIR Research IR Max software. The time required to recover the initial temperature ranged from 20 to 52 minutes when no stimulus was added and varied between 8 and 26 minutes with the chewing gum stimulus. These results show that recovery is faster with the addition of the stimulus and may guide clinicians regarding the pre and post-operative times with ice therapy, in the presence or absence of mechanical stimulus that increases muscle functions (e.g. phonetics or mastication).

Keywords: thermography, skin temperature, orofacial biomechanics, ice therapy

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20 Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions

Authors: G. A. Khalid, M. D. Jones, R. Prabhu, A. Mason-Jones, W. Whittington, H. Bakhtiarydavijani, P. S. Theobald

Abstract:

Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, material properties, impact simulation, infant head trauma, post mortem human subjects

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19 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Mechanical Design, Ergonomics, Laparoscopic Surgery

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18 Biomechanical Modeling, Simulation, and Comparison of Human Arm Motion to Mitigate Astronaut Task during Extra Vehicular Activity

Authors: S. N. Omkar, B. Vadiraj, B. Kapil Bharadwaj, Yash Vardhan Gupta

Abstract:

During manned exploration of space, missions will require astronaut crewmembers to perform Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for a variety of tasks. These EVAs take place after long periods of operations in space, and in and around unique vehicles, space structures and systems. Considering the remoteness and time spans in which these vehicles will operate, EVA system operations should utilize common worksites, tools and procedures as much as possible to increase the efficiency of training and proficiency in operations. All of the preparations need to be carried out based on studies of astronaut motions. Until now, development and training activities associated with the planned EVAs in Russian and U.S. space programs have relied almost exclusively on physical simulators. These experimental tests are expensive and time consuming. During the past few years a strong increase has been observed in the use of computer simulations due to the fast developments in computer hardware and simulation software. Based on this idea, an effort to develop a computational simulation system to model human dynamic motion for EVA is initiated. This study focuses on the simulation of an astronaut moving the orbital replaceable units into the worksites or removing them from the worksites. Our physics-based methodology helps fill the gap in quantitative analysis of astronaut EVA by providing a multisegment human arm model. Simulation work described in the study improves on the realism of previous efforts, incorporating joint stops to account for the physiological limits of range of motion. To demonstrate the utility of this approach human arm model is simulated virtually using ADAMS/LifeMOD® software. Kinematic mechanism for the astronaut’s task is studied from joint angles and torques. Simulation results obtained is validated with numerical simulation based on the principles of Newton-Euler method. Torques determined using mathematical model are compared among the subjects to know the grace and consistency of the task performed. We conclude that due to uncertain nature of exploration-class EVA, a virtual model developed using multibody dynamics approach offers significant advantages over traditional human modeling approaches.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Inverse Kinematics, extra vehicular activity, human body modeling

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17 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: Chethana K., Guru Prasad A. S., Vikranth H. N., Varun H., Omkar S. N., Asokan S.

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors in the assessment of human postural stability and balance on an unstable platform. In this work, FBG sensor Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) is developed for measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. The studies are validated by comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer. The results obtained from the developed FBGSAD depict qualitative similarities with the data recorded by commercial accelerometer. The advantage of the FBGSAD is that it measures simultaneously plantar strain distribution and postural stability of the subject along with its inherent benefits like non-requirement of energizing voltage to the sensor, electromagnetic immunity and simple design which suits its applicability in biomechanical applications. The developed FBGSAD can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: Biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, postural stability analysis, Plantar Strain Measurement

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16 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez

Abstract:

This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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15 The Biomechanics of Cycling with a Transtibial Prosthesis: A Case Study of a Professional Cyclist

Authors: D. Koutny, D. Palousek, J. Rosicky, P. Stoklasek, L. Tepla, M. Prochazkova, Z. Svoboda, P. Krejci

Abstract:

The article deals with biomechanics of cyclist with unilateral transtibial amputation. Transtibial amputation completely removes ankle and part of muscles of a lower leg which are responsible for production of force during pedaling and causes significant geometric and power asymmetry between the limbs during cycling movement. The primary goal of this work is to assess the effects of length adjustment of the crank on the kinematics and muscle activity of cyclist. The paper presents experimental work, which aims to find a suitable ratio of the length of kinematic components to improve overall athletic performance. The study presents the results of the kinematic analysis of the cycling movement with different crank length realized by tracking camera system together with the results of muscle activity measurements captured by electromyography and measurement of forces in the cranks by strain gauges.

Keywords: motion capture, electromyography, amputation, transtibial prosthesis, kinematics of cycling, leg asymmetry

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14 Biomechanics Analysis When Delivering Baby

Authors: Kristyanto B.

Abstract:

Plenty of analyses based on Biomechanics were carried out on many jobs in manufactures or services. Now Biomechanics analysis is being applied on mothers who are giving birth. The analysis conducted in terms of normal condition of the birth process without Gyn Bed (Obstetric Bed). The aim of analysis is to study whether it is risky or not when choosing the position of mother’s postures when delivering the baby. This investigation was applied on two positions that generally appear in common birth process. Results will show the analysis of both positions to support the birth process based on the Biomechanics analysis (Ergonomic approaches). 

Keywords: Biomechanics analysis, Birth process, Position of postures analysis, Ergonomic approaches

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13 Biomechanics Analysis of Bicross Start

Authors: M. Kalichová, P. Hedbávný, G. Bago, S. Hřebíčková, R. Labounková

Abstract:

The article deals with a biomechanics analysis of the classic bicross start with a backward movement of the bike. This is a case study analyzing this type of start in two bicross riders representing the Czech Republic. Based on the 3D kinematic analysis and with a special emphasis on the ankle movement we have divided the start into five phases – phase n. 1 – reaction time, phase n. 2 – preparation movements time, phase n. 3 – first pedal stroke time, phase n. 4 – dead point pedal passage time, phase n. 5 – second pedal stroke time. Further we have demonstrated the significance of kinematic characteristics in various stages of the bicross start including their values and the extent of change. These primarily include the vector of the instantaneous velocity of the head, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hip and knee joints. The significant angle characteristics have been noted in elbow, shoulder, hip and knee joints. The results of this work indicate the types of movement prevailing in the respective phases and as such are expected to serve as a basis for further analyses of this movement structure performed, however, on a large research sample.

Keywords: Kinematic Analysis, Bicross, start

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12 Calculation of the Forces Acting on the Knee Joint When Rising from Kneeling Positions (Effects of the Leg Alignment and the Arm Assistance on the Knee Joint Forces)

Authors: S. Hirokawa, M. Fukunaga, M. Mawatari

Abstract:

Knee joint forces are available by in vivo measurement using an instrumented knee prosthesis for small to moderate knee flexion but not for high flexion yet. We created a 2D mathematical model of the lower limb incorporating several new features such as a patello-femoral mechanism, a thigh-calf contact at high knee flexion and co-contracting muscles' force ratio, then used it to determine knee joint forces arising from high knee flexions in four kneeling conditions: rising with legs in parallel, with one foot forward, with or without arm use. With arms used, the maximum values of knee joint force decreased to about 60% of those with arms not used. When rising with one foot forward, if arms are not used, the forward leg sustains a force as large as that sustained when rising with legs parallel.

Keywords: Biomechanics, mathematical model, Knee joint force, kneeling

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11 A Simplified Solid Mechanical and Acoustic Model for Human Middle Ear

Authors: Adarsh Venkataraman Ganesan, Sundaram Swaminathan, Rama Jayaraj

Abstract:

Human middle-ear is the key component of the auditory system. Its function is to transfer the sound waves through the ear canal to provide sufficient stimulus to the fluids of the inner ear. Degradation of the ossicles that transmit these sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear leads to hearing loss. This problem can be overcome by replacing one or more of these ossicles by middleear prosthesis. Designing such prosthesis requires a comprehensive knowledge of the biomechanics of the middle-ear. There are many finite element modeling approaches developed to understand the biomechanics of the middle ear. The available models in the literature, involve high computation time. In this paper, we propose a simplified model which provides a reasonably accurate result with much less computational time. Simulation results indicate a maximum sound pressure gain of 10 dB at 5500 Hz.

Keywords: Ear, COMSOL, ossicles, Stapes

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10 Intact and ACL-Deficient Knee MODEL Evaluation

Authors: A. Vairis, M. Petousis, B. Kandyla, C. Chrisoulakis

Abstract:

The human knee joint has a three dimensional geometry with multiple body articulations that produce complex mechanical responses under loads that occur in everyday life and sports activities. To produce the necessary joint compliance and stability for optimal daily function various menisci and ligaments are present while muscle forces are used to this effect. Therefore, knowledge of the complex mechanical interactions of these load bearing structures is necessary when treatment of relevant diseases is evaluated and assisting devices are designed. Numerical tools such as finite element analysis are suitable for modeling such joints in order to understand their physics. They have been used in the current study to develop an accurate human knee joint and model its mechanical behavior. To evaluate the efficacy of this articulated model, static load cases were used for comparison purposes with previous experimentally verified modeling works drawn from literature.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Finite element modeling, knee joint

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9 Tool for Helping Rural Woman Giving Birth

Authors: Bernadus Kristyanto, Luciana T Dewi, Rustamaji

Abstract:

Giving birth is a natural process and most women have to go through it. Gynecologist or Midwife usually uses the leg holder to position the cervix in the stitching process. In some part of rural areas in Indonesia, the labor process normally being done at homes by calling in a midwife or gynecologist. The facilities for this kind of labor process is not yet sufficient, as the use of leg holder supposedly on the obstetric bed. The reality is that it is impossible to bring in the obstetric bed to the patient-s house at the time they call for giving birth or the time when the stitching of the cervix need to be done. This research is redesigning the leg holder through Biomechanics and ergonomic approaches to obtain the optimal design which is suitable to the user of a developing country such as Indonesia.

Keywords: Giving birth, Leg holder, Re-design product, Biomechanics and ergonomic approaches

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8 The Biomechanical Properties of the Different Modalities of Surgically Corrected Coarctation of the Aorta in Neonates and Infants

Authors: Elina Ligere, Valts Ozolins, Lauris Smits, Normunds Sikora, Ivars Melderis, Laila Feldmane, Aris Lacis, Vladimir Kasyanov

Abstract:

Biomechanical properties of infantile aorta in vitro in cases of different standard anastomoses: end-to-end (ETE), extended anastomosis end-to-end (EETE) and subclavian flap aortoplasty (SFA) used for surgical correction of coarctation were analyzed to detect the influence of the method on the biomechanics of infantile aorta and possible changes in haemodinamics. 10 specimens of native aorta, 3 specimens with ETE, 4 EEET and 3 SFA were investigated. The experiments showed a non-linear relationship between stress and strain in the infantile aorta, the modulus of elasticity of the aortic wall increased with the increase of inner pressure. In the case of anastomosis end-to-end the modulus was almost constant, relevant to the modulus of elasticity of the aorta with the inner pressure 100-120 mmHg. The anastomoses EETE and SFA showed elastic properties closer to native aorta, the stiffness of ETE did not change with the changes in inner pressure.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Mechanical Properties, coarctation, neonatal aorta

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7 Spine Evaluation Device with Visual Feedback

Authors: T. Hirata, G. H. Yokoyama, L. H. M. Duque

Abstract:

The posteroanterior manipulation technique is usually include in the procedure of the lumbar spine to evaluate the intervertebral motion according to mechanical resistance. The mechanical device with visual feedback was proposed that allows one to analysis the lumbar segments mobility “in vivo" facilitating for the therapist to take its treatment evolution. The measuring system uses load cell and displacement sensor to estimate spine stiffness. In this work, the device was tested by 2 therapists, female, applying posteroanterior force techniques to 5 volunteers, female, with frequency of approximately 1.2-1.8 Hz. A test-retest procedure was used for 2 periods of day. The visual feedback results small variation of forces and cycle time during 6 cycles rhythmic application. The stiffness values showed good agreement between test-retest procedures when used same order of maximum forces.

Keywords: Biomechanics, lumber spine stiffness, intervertebral manipulation device, visual feedback

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6 Modeling of Blood Flow Velocity into the Main Artery via Left Ventricle of Heart during Steady Condition

Authors: Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Nur Hazreen Mohd Hasni

Abstract:

A three-dimensional and pulsatile blood flow in the left ventricle of heart model has been studied numerically. The geometry was derived from a simple approximation of the left ventricle model and the numerical simulations were obtained using a formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, simulation was used to investigate the pattern of flow velocity in 3D model of heart with consider the left ventricle based on critical parameter of blood under steady condition. Our results demonstrate that flow velocity focused from mitral valve channel and continuous linearly to left ventricle wall but this skewness progresses into outside wall in atrium through aortic valve with random distribution that is irregular due to force subtract from ventricle wall during cardiac cycle. The findings are the prediction of the behavior of the blood flow velocity pattern in steady flow condition which can assist the medical practitioners in their decision on the patients- treatments.

Keywords: Biomechanics, left ventricle, cardiac cycle, aortic valve, mitral valve, Leaflet

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5 Probabilistic Approach as a Method Used in the Solution of Engineering Design for Biomechanics and Mining

Authors: Karel Frydrýšek

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the probabilistic numerical solution of the problems in biomechanics and mining. Applications of Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA) Method are presented in the solution of designing of the external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics (these fixators can be applied for the treatment of open and unstable fractures etc.) and in the solution of a hard rock (ore) disintegration process (i.e. the bit moves into the ore and subsequently disintegrates it, the results are compared with experiments, new design of excavation tool is proposed.

Keywords: Rock Mechanics, Engineering design, Traumatology, probabilistic approach

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4 New Ways for Designing External Fixators Applied in Treatment of Open and Unstable Fractures

Authors: Karel Frydrýšek, Pavel Koštial, Karla Barabaszová, Jana Kukutschová

Abstract:

This paper deals with a new way for designing external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics. These fixators can be applied in the treatment of open and unstable fractures or for lengthening human or animal bones etc. The new design is based on the development of Ilizarov and other techniques (i.e. shape and weight optimalization based on composite materials, application of smart materials, nanotechnology, low x-ray absorption, antibacterial protection, patient's comfort, reduction in the duration of the surgical treatment, and cost).

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Traumatology, external fixators, newmaterials

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3 Simulating Dynamics of Thoracolumbar Spine Derived from Life MOD under Haptic Forces

Authors: K. T. Huynh, I. Gibson, W. F. Lu, B. N. Jagdish

Abstract:

In this paper, the construction of a detailed spine model is presented using the LifeMOD Biomechanics Modeler. The detailed spine model is obtained by refining spine segments in cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions into individual vertebra segments, using bushing elements representing the intervertebral discs, and building various ligamentous soft tissues between vertebrae. In the sagittal plane of the spine, constant force will be applied from the posterior to anterior during simulation to determine dynamic characteristics of the spine. The force magnitude is gradually increased in subsequent simulations. Based on these recorded dynamic properties, graphs of displacement-force relationships will be established in terms of polynomial functions by using the least-squares method and imported into a haptic integrated graphic environment. A thoracolumbar spine model with complex geometry of vertebrae, which is digitized from a resin spine prototype, will be utilized in this environment. By using the haptic technique, surgeons can touch as well as apply forces to the spine model through haptic devices to observe the locomotion of the spine which is computed from the displacement-force relationship graphs. This current study provides a preliminary picture of our ongoing work towards building and simulating bio-fidelity scoliotic spine models in a haptic integrated graphic environment whose dynamic properties are obtained from LifeMOD. These models can be helpful for surgeons to examine kinematic behaviors of scoliotic spines and to propose possible surgical plans before spine correction operations.

Keywords: haptic interface, LifeMOD, spine modeling

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2 Towards Finite Element Modeling of the Accoustics of Human Head

Authors: Maciej Paszynski, Leszek Demkowicz, Jason Kurtz

Abstract:

In this paper, a new formulation for acoustics coupled with linear elasticity is presented. The primary objective of the work is to develop a three dimensional hp adaptive finite element method code destinated for modeling of acoustics of human head. The code will have numerous applications e.g. in designing hearing protection devices for individuals working in high noise environments. The presented work is in the preliminary stage. The variational formulation has been implemented and tested on a sequence of meshes with concentric multi-layer spheres, with material data representing the tissue (the brain), skull and the air. Thus, an efficient solver for coupled elasticity/acoustics problems has been developed, and tested on high contrast material data representing the human head.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Acoustics, Coupled problems, Finite Element Method

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1 Real Time Multi-Sensory Force Sensing Mat for Sports Biomechanics and Human Gait Analysis

Authors: D. Gouwanda, S. M. N. A. Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. It is capable of recording and monitoring ground reaction forces exerted by human foot during various activities such as walking, running and jumping in real time. In overall, force sensing mat mainly consists of three elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and data acquisition device. Force sensing mat is the mat that contains an array of force sensing elements. To control and process the incoming signal from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader are developed using National Instrument Labview. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat. Additionally, a preliminary experiment dataset is presented in this paper.

Keywords: force sensing resistor, Force platform, human gait analysis

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