Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

response surface methodology Related Publications

41 Parameter Optimization and Thermal Simulation in Laser Joining of Coach Peel Panels of Dissimilar Materials

Authors: Masoud Mohammadpour, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevic

Abstract:

The quality of laser welded-brazed (LWB) joints were strongly dependent on the main process parameters, therefore the effect of laser power (3.2–4 kW), welding speed (60–80 mm/s) and wire feed rate (70–90 mm/s) on mechanical strength and surface roughness were investigated in this study. The comprehensive optimization process by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function was used for multi-criteria optimization. The experiments were planned based on Box– Behnken design implementing linear and quadratic polynomial equations for predicting the desired output properties. Finally, validation experiments were conducted on an optimized process condition which exhibited good agreement between the predicted and experimental results. AlSi3Mn1 was selected as the filler material for joining aluminum alloy 6022 and hot-dip galvanized steel in coach peel configuration. The high scanning speed could control the thickness of IMC as thin as 5 µm. The thermal simulations of joining process were conducted by the Finite Element Method (FEM), and results were validated through experimental data. The Fe/Al interfacial thermal history evidenced that the duration of critical temperature range (700–900 °C) in this high scanning speed process was less than 1 s. This short interaction time leads to the formation of reaction-control IMC layer instead of diffusion-control mechanisms.

Keywords: response surface methodology, finite element, multi-response optimization, laser welding-brazing, cross-beam laser

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40 Optimization of Process Parameters using Response Surface Methodology for the Removal of Zinc(II) by Solvent Extraction

Authors: B. Guezzen, M.A. Didi, B. Medjahed

Abstract:

A factorial design of experiments and a response surface methodology were implemented to investigate the liquid-liquid extraction process of zinc (II) from acetate medium using the 1-Butyl-imidazolium di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate [BIm+][D2EHP-]. The optimization process of extraction parameters such as the initial pH effect (2.5, 4.5, and 6.6), ionic liquid concentration (1, 5.5, and 10 mM) and salt effect (0.01, 5, and 10 mM) was carried out using a three-level full factorial design (33). The results of the factorial design demonstrate that all these factors are statistically significant, including the square effects of pH and ionic liquid concentration. The results showed that the order of significance: IL concentration > salt effect > initial pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showing high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.91) and low probability values (P < 0.05) signifies the validity of the predicted second-order quadratic model for Zn (II) extraction. The optimum conditions for the extraction of zinc (II) at the constant temperature (20 °C), initial Zn (II) concentration (1mM) and A/O ratio of unity were: initial pH (4.8), extractant concentration (9.9 mM), and NaCl concentration (8.2 mM). At the optimized condition, the metal ion could be quantitatively extracted.

Keywords: response surface methodology, ionic liquid, solvent extraction, zinc acetate

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39 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Shyh-Chour Huang, Thanh-Phong Dao, Nhat Linh Ho, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: response surface methodology, Taguchi method, design of experiment, compliant mechanism, flexure hinge, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism

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38 Optimization of Samarium Extraction via Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Cyanex 272 as Mobile Carrier

Authors: Ali Kargari, Jaber Safdari, Hossein Abolghasemi, Maliheh Raji

Abstract:

Samarium as a rare-earth element is playing a growing important role in high technology. Traditional methods for extraction of rare earth metals such as ion exchange and solvent extraction have disadvantages of high investment and high energy consumption. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) as an improved solvent extraction technique is an effective transport method for separation of various compounds from aqueous solutions. In this work, the extraction of samarium from aqueous solutions by ELM was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisted of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as mobile carrier, and kerosene as base fluid. 1 M nitric acid solution was used as internal aqueous phase. The effects of the important process parameters on samarium extraction were investigated, and the values of these parameters were optimized using the Central Composition Design (CCD) of RSM. These parameters were the concentration of MWCNT in nanofluid, the carrier concentration, and the volume ratio of organic membrane phase to internal phase (Roi). The three-dimensional (3D) response surfaces of samarium extraction efficiency were obtained to visualize the individual and interactive effects of the process variables. A regression model for % extraction was developed, and its adequacy was evaluated. The result shows that % extraction improves by using MWCNT nanofluid in organic membrane phase and extraction efficiency of 98.92% can be achieved under the optimum conditions. In addition, demulsification was successfully performed and the recycled membrane phase was proved to be effective in the optimum condition.

Keywords: Nanofluid, response surface methodology, emulsion liquid membrane, samarium, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, cyanex 272

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37 Performance Evaluation of Karanja Oil Based Biodiesel Engine Using Modified Genetic Algorithm

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. Dhingra, K. K. Dubey

Abstract:

This paper presents the evaluation of performance (BSFC and BTE), combustion (Pmax) and emission (CO, NOx, HC and smoke opacity) parameters of karanja biodiesel in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine by considering significant engine input parameters (blending ratio, compression ratio and load torque). Multi-objective optimization of performance, combustion and emission parameters is also carried out in a karanja biodiesel engine using hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. The pareto optimum solutions are predicted by running the hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. Each pareto optimal solution is having its own importance. Confirmation tests are also conducted at randomly selected few pareto solutions to check the authenticity of the results.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, response surface methodology, Karanja biodiesel, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine, central composite rotatable design

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36 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Roli Saini

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: Optimization, Coagulation, response surface methodology, carbofuran

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35 Statistical Analysis and Optimization of a Process for CO2 Capture

Authors: Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Muftah H. El-Naas, Ameera F. Mohammad, Mabruk I. Suleiman, Mohamed Al Musharfy

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage technologies play a significant role in contributing to the control of climate change through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The present study evaluates and optimizes CO2 capture through a process, where carbon dioxide is passed into pH adjusted high salinity water and reacted with sodium chloride to form a precipitate of sodium bicarbonate. This process is based on a modified Solvay process with higher CO2 capture efficiency, higher sodium removal, and higher pH level without the use of ammonia. The process was tested in a bubble column semi-batch reactor and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). CO2 capture efficiency and sodium removal were optimized in terms of major operating parameters based on four levels and variables in Central Composite Design (CCD). The operating parameters were gas flow rate (0.5–1.5 L/min), reactor temperature (10 to 50 oC), buffer concentration (0.2-2.6%) and water salinity (25-197 g NaCl/L). The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial using multiple regression and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained using response optimizer. The optimum conditions were tested experimentally using desalination reject brine with salinity ranging from 65,000 to 75,000 mg/L. The CO2 capture efficiency in 180 min was 99% and the maximum sodium removal was 35%. The experimental and predicted values were within 95% confidence interval, which demonstrates that the developed model can successfully predict the capture efficiency and sodium removal using the modified Solvay method.

Keywords: CO2 Capture, Water desalination, response surface methodology, bubble column reactor

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34 Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete from Early Age Test Result Using Design of Experiments (RSM)

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Loubna Bentaher

Abstract:

Response Surface Methods (RSM) provide statistically validated predictive models that can then be manipulated for finding optimal process configurations. Variation transmitted to responses from poorly controlled process factors can be accounted for by the mathematical technique of propagation of error (POE), which facilitates ‘finding the flats’ on the surfaces generated by RSM. The dual response approach to RSM captures the standard deviation of the output as well as the average. It accounts for unknown sources of variation. Dual response plus propagation of error (POE) provides a more useful model of overall response variation. In our case, we implemented this technique in predicting compressive strength of concrete of 28 days in age. Since 28 days is quite time consuming, while it is important to ensure the quality control process. This paper investigates the potential of using design of experiments (DOE-RSM) to predict the compressive strength of concrete at 28th day. Data used for this study was carried out from experiment schemes at university of Benghazi, civil engineering department. A total of 114 sets of data were implemented. ACI mix design method was utilized for the mix design. No admixtures were used, only the main concrete mix constituents such as cement, coarseaggregate, fine aggregate and water were utilized in all mixes. Different mix proportions of the ingredients and different water cement ratio were used. The proposed mathematical models are capable of predicting the required concrete compressive strength of concrete from early ages.

Keywords: Optimal Design, compressive strength, response surface methodology, mix proportioning

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33 UF as Pretreatment of RO for Tertiary Treatment of Biologically Treated Distillery Spentwash

Authors: Pinki Sharma, Himanshu Joshi

Abstract:

Distillery spentwash contains high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), color, total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants even after biological treatment. The effluent can’t be discharged as such in the surface water bodies or land without further treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment plants have been installed in many of the distilleries at tertiary level in many of the distilleries in India, but are not properly working due to fouling problem which is caused by the presence of high concentration of organic matter and other contaminants in biologically treated spentwash. In order to make the membrane treatment a proven and reliable technology, proper pre-treatment is mandatory. In the present study, ultra-filtration (UF) for pretreatment of RO at tertiary stage has been performed. Operating parameters namely initial pH (pHo: 2–10), trans-membrane pressure (TMP: 4-20 bars) and temperature (T: 15-43°C) were used for conducting experiments with UF system. Experiments were optimized at different operating parameters in terms of COD, color, TDS and TOC removal by using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. The results showed that removal of COD, color and TDS was 62%, 93.5% and 75.5% respectively, with UF, at optimized conditions with increased permeate flux from 17.5 l/m2/h (RO) to 38 l/m2/h (UF-RO). The performance of the RO system was greatly improved both in term of pollutant removal as well as water recovery.

Keywords: Reverse osmosis, response surface methodology, bio-digested distillery spentwash, ultra-filtration

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32 Utilization of Mustard Leaves (Brassica juncea) Powder for the Development of Cereal Based Extruded Snacks

Authors: Bahadur Singh Hathan, Maya S. Rathod

Abstract:

Mustard leaves are rich in folates, vitamin A, K and B-complex. Mustard greens are low in calories and fats and rich in dietary fiber. They are rich in potassium, manganese, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and low in sodium. It is very rich in antioxidants and Phytonutrients. For the optimization of process variables (moisture content and mustard leave powder), the experiments were conducted according to central composite Face Centered Composite design of RSM. The mustard leaves powder was replaced with composite flour (a combination of rice, chickpea and corn in the ratio of 70:15:15). The extrudate was extruded in a twin screw extruder at a barrel temperature of 120°C. The independent variables were mustard leaves powder (2-10 %) and moisture content (12-20 %). Responses analyzed were bulk density, water solubility index, water absorption index, lateral expansion, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and overall acceptability. The optimum conditions obtained were 7.19 g mustard leaves powder in 100g premix having 16.8% moisture content (w.b).

Keywords: Optimization, response surface methodology, extrusion, mustard leaves powder

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31 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.

Abstract:

In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer. 

Keywords: Microstructure, response surface methodology, central composite design, surface hardness, deep cold rolling, Surface Roughness

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30 Simulating Drilling Using a CAD System

Authors: Panagiotis Kyratsis, Konstantinos Kakoulis

Abstract:

Nowadays, the rapid development of CAD systems’ programming environments results in the creation of multiple downstream applications, which are developed and becoming increasingly available. CAD based manufacturing simulations is gradually following the same trend. Drilling is the most popular holemaking process used in a variety of industries. A specially built piece of software that deals with the drilling kinematics is presented. The cutting forces are calculated based on the tool geometry, the cutting conditions and the tool/work-piece materials. The results are verified by experimental work. Finally, the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied and mathematical models of the total thrust force and the thrust force developed because of the main cutting edges are proposed.

Keywords: Drilling, CAD, response surface methodology, RSM, application programming interface

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29 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Malinee Sriariyanun, Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong

Abstract:

A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contains 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: Yeast, Single Cell Protein, response surface methodology, cassava processing waste

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28 Analysis of a Lignocellulose Degrading Microbial Consortium to Enhance the Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straws

Authors: Malinee Sriariyanun, Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Supanun Kangrang, Kittiphong Rattanaporn

Abstract:

Rice straw is lignocellulosic biomass which can be utilized as substrate for the biogas production. However, due to the property and composition of rice straw, it is difficult to be degraded by hydrolysis enzymes. One of the pretreatment methods that modify such properties of lignocellulosic biomass is the application of lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microbial consortia to enhance biogas production. To select the high efficient consortium, cellulase enzymes were extracted and their activities were analyzed. The results suggested that microbial consortium culture obtained from cattle manure is the best candidate compared to decomposed wood and horse manure. A microbial consortium isolated from cattle manure was then mixed with anaerobic sludge and used as inoculum for biogas production. The optimal conditions for biogas production were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The tested parameters were the ratio of amount of microbial consortium isolated and amount of anaerobic sludge (MI:AS), substrate to inoculum ratio (S:I) and temperature. Here, the value of the regression coefficient R2 = 0.7661 could be explained by the model which is high to advocate the significance of the model. The highest cumulative biogas yield was 104.6 ml/g-rice straw at optimum ratio of MI:AS, ratio of S:I, and temperature of 2.5:1, 15:1 and 44°C respectively.

Keywords: Biogas, response surface methodology, cellulase, microbial consortium, lignocellulolytic biomass

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27 Microwave-Assisted Alginate Extraction from Portuguese Saccorhiza polyschides – Influence of Acid Pretreatment

Authors: Mário Silva, Filipa Gomes, Filipa Oliveira, Simone Morais, Cristina Delerue-Matos

Abstract:

Brown seaweeds are abundant in Portuguese coastline and represent an almost unexploited marine economic resource. One of the most common species, easily available for harvesting in the northwest coast, is Saccorhiza polyschides grows in the lowest shore and costal rocky reefs. It is almost exclusively used by local farmers as natural fertilizer, but contains a substantial amount of valuable compounds, particularly alginates, natural biopolymers of high interest for many industrial applications. Alginates are natural polysaccharides present in cell walls of brown seaweed, highly biocompatible, with particular properties that make them of high interest for the food, biotechnology, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional extraction processes are based on thermal treatment. They are lengthy and consume high amounts of energy and solvents. In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has shown enormous potential to overcome major drawbacks that outcome from conventional plant material extraction (thermal and/or solvent based) techniques, being also successfully applied to the extraction of agar, fucoidans and alginates. In the present study, acid pretreatment of brown seaweed Saccorhiza polyschides for subsequent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of alginate was optimized. Seaweeds were collected in Northwest Portuguese coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean between May and August, 2014. Experimental design was used to assess the effect of temperature and acid pretreatment time in alginate extraction. Response surface methodology allowed the determination of the optimum MAE conditions: 40 mL of HCl 0.1 M per g of dried seaweed with constant stirring at 20ºC during 14h. Optimal acid pretreatment conditions have enhanced significantly MAE of alginates from Saccorhiza polyschides, thus contributing for the development of a viable, more environmental friendly alternative to conventional processes.

Keywords: alginate, response surface methodology, acid pretreatment, brown seaweed, microwave-assisted extraction

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26 A β-mannanase from Fusarium oxysporum SS-25 via Solid State Fermentation on Brewer’s Spent Grain: Medium Optimization by Statistical Tools, Kinetic Characterization and Its Applications

Authors: S. K. Soni, S. S. Rana, C. Janveja

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the optimization of fermentation parameters for the hyper production of mannanase from Fusarium oxysporum SS-25 employing two step statistical strategy and kinetic characterization of crude enzyme preparation. The Plackett-Burman design used to screen out the important factors in the culture medium revealed 20% (w/w) wheat bran, 2% (w/w) each of potato peels, soyabean meal and malt extract, 1% tryptone, 0.14% NH4SO4, 0.2% KH2PO4, 0.0002% ZnSO4, 0.0005% FeSO4, 0.01% MnSO4, 0.012% SDS, 0.03% NH4Cl, 0.1% NaNO3 in brewer’s spent grain based medium with 50% moisture content, inoculated with 2.8×107 spores and incubated at 30oC for 6 days to be the main parameters influencing the enzyme production. Of these factors, four variables including soyabean meal, FeSO4, MnSO4 and NaNO3 were chosen to study the interactive effects and their optimum levels in central composite design of response surface methodology with the final mannanase yield of 193 IU/gds. The kinetic characterization revealed the crude enzyme to be active over broader temperature and pH range. This could result in 26.6% reduction in kappa number with 4.93% higher tear index and 1% increase in brightness when used to treat the wheat straw based kraft pulp. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme was also demonstrated on both locust bean gum and guar gum.

Keywords: response surface methodology, Fusarium oxysporum, Brewer’s Spent Grain, Mannanase

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25 Statistical Screening of Medium Components on Ethanol Production from Cashew Apple Juice using Saccharomyces diasticus

Authors: Karuppaiya Maruthai, Viruthagiri Thangavelu, Manikandan Kanagasabai

Abstract:

In the present study, effect of critical medium components (a total of fifteen components) on ethanol production from waste cashew apple juice (CAJ) using yeast Saccharomyces diasticus was studied. A statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) was used for the design of experiments. The design contains a total of 32 experimental trails. The effect of medium components on ethanol was studied at two different levels such as low concentration level (-) and high concentration levels (+). The dependent variables selected in this study were ethanol concentration (g/L) and cellmass concentration (g/L). Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). In general, initial substrate concentration significantly influenced the microbial growth and product formation. Of the medium components evaluated, CAJ concentration, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, and malt extract showed significant effect on ethanol fermentation. A second-order polynomial model was used to predict the experimental data and the model fitted the data with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.98). Maximum ethanol (15.3 g/L) and biomass (6.4 g/L) concentrations were obtained at the optimum medium composition and at optimum condition (temperature-30°C; initial pH-6.8) after 72 h fermentation using S.diasticus.

Keywords: Fermentation, Yeast, Ethanol, response surface methodology, cashew apple juice

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24 Statistical Optimization of Medium Components for Biomass Production of Chlorella pyrenoidosa under Autotrophic Conditions and Evaluation of Its Biochemical Composition under Stress Conditions

Authors: N. P. Dhull, K. Gupta, R. Soni, D. K. Rahi, S. K. Soni

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to statistically design an autotrophic medium for maximum biomass production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa using response surface methodology. After evaluating one factor at a time approach, K2HPO4, KNO3, MgSO4.7H2O and NaHCO3 were preferred over the other components of the fog’s medium as most critical autotrophic medium components. The study showed that the maximum biomass yield was achieved while the concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O, K2HPO4, KNO3 and NaHCO3 were 0.409 g/L, 0.24 g/L, 1.033 g/L, and 3.265 g/L, respectively. The study reported that the biomass productivity of C. pyrenoidosa improved from 0.14 g/L in defined fog’s medium to 1.40 g/L in modified fog’s medium resulting 10 fold increase. The biochemical composition biosynthesis of C. pyrenoidosa was altered using nitrogen limiting stress bringing about 5.23 fold increase in lipid content than control (cell without stress), as analyzed by FTIR integration method.

Keywords: Optimization, FTIR, response surface methodology, Autotrophic condition, Chlorella pyrenoidosa

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23 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini

Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio, and batch extraction time (τ)  with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs, ψ, and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively. 

Keywords: Extraction, response surface methodology, lactic acid, emulsion liquid membrane, n-trioctylamine

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22 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera, Shweta Kumari

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: Optimization, Yeast, response surface methodology, β-galactosidase, permeabilization

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21 Gluten-Free Cookies Enriched with Blueberry Pomace: Optimization of Baking Process

Authors: Aleksandra Misan, Bojana Šarić, Nataša Nedeljković, Mladenka Pestorić, Pavle Jovanov, Milica Pojić, Jelena Tomić, Bojana Filipčev, Miroslav Hadnađev, Anamarija Mandić

Abstract:

With the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity of gluten-free cookies, blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a gluten-free cookie formulation. Since the quality of a baked product is highly influenced by the baking conditions, the objective of this work was to optimize the baking time and thickness of dough pieces, by applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookies. The experiments were carried out according to a Central Composite Design (CCD) by selecting the dough thickness and baking time as independent variables, while hardness, color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), water activity, diameter and short/long ratio were response variables. According to the results of RSM analysis, the baking time of 13.74min and dough thickness of 4.08mm was found to be the optimal for the baking temperature of 170°C. As similar optimal parameters were obtained by previously conducted experiment based on sensory analysis, response surface methodology (RSM) can be considered as a suitable approach to optimize the baking process.

Keywords: response surface methodology, Baking process, blueberry pomace, gluten-free cookies

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20 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: Sajeena Beevi. B, Jose P. P., G. Madhu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L and 20.32 g/L respectively.

Keywords: Optimization, Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, response surface methodology

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19 Development of Regression Equation for Surface Finish and Analysis of Surface Integrity in EDM

Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a relatively modern machining process having distinct advantages over other machining processes and can machine Ti-alloys effectively. The present study emphasizes the features of the development of regression equation based on response surface methodology (RSM) for correlating the interactive and higher-order influences of machining parameters on surface finish of Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The process parameters selected in this study are discharge current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage. Machining has been accomplished using negative polarity of Graphite electrode. Analysis of variance is employed to ascertain the adequacy of the developed regression model. Experiments based on central composite of response surface method are carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to investigate the surface topography of the EDMed job. The results evidence that the proposed regression equation can predict the surface roughness effectively. The lower ampere and short pulse on time yield better surface finish.

Keywords: response surface methodology, surface roughness, regression model, Graphite electrode

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18 Statistical Optimization of Process Conditions for Disinfection of Water Using Defatted Moringa oleifera Seed Extract

Authors: Suleyman A. Muyibi, Munirat, A. Idris, Saedi Jami, Parveen Jamal, Mohd Ismail Abdul Karim

Abstract:

In this study, statistical optimization design was used to study the optimum disinfection parameters using defatted crude Moringa oleifera seed extracts against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The possible optimum range of dosage, contact time and mixing rate from the OFAT study were 25mg/l to 200mg/l, 30minutes to 240 minutes and 100rpm to 160rpm respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization using faced centered central composite design showed that dosage, contact time and mixing rate were highly significant. The optimum disinfection range was 125mg/l, at contact time of 30 minutes with mixing rate of 120 rpm. 

Keywords: response surface methodology, Moringa oleifera, E.coli, disinfection

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17 Optimization of Lipase Production Using Bacillus subtilis by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: R. Rajendiran, A. Shyamala Devi, K. Chitra Devi

Abstract:

A total of 6 isolates of Bacillus subtilis were isolated from oil mill waste collected in Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India. The isolated bacteria were screened using lipase screening medium containing Tween 80. BS-3 isolate exhibited a greater clear zone than the others, indicating higher lipase activity. Therefore, this isolate was selected for media optimization studies. Ten process variables were screened using Plackett–Burman design and were further optimized by central composite design of response surface methodology for lipase production in submerged fermentation. Maximum lipase production of 16.627 U/min/ml were predicted in medium containing yeast extract (9.3636g), CaCl2 (0.8986g) and incubation periods (1.813 days). A mean value of 16.98 ± 0.2286 U/min/ml of lipase was acquired from real experiments.

Keywords: response surface methodology, Bacillus subtilis, extracellular lipase, Plackett–Burman design

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16 Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques

Authors: P. S. Dabeer, G. K. Purohit

Abstract:

Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental work based on central composite second order rotatable design has been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material. Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects on the surface roughness.

Keywords: response surface methodology, Ball burnishing

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15 Optimization for Subcritical Water Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Rambutan Peels

Authors: Nuttawan Yoswathana, M. N. Eshtiaghi

Abstract:

Rambutan is a tropical fruit which peel possesses antioxidant properties. This work was conducted to optimize extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from rambutan peel. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) on temperature, extraction time and percent solvent mixture. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for SWE were as follows: temperature 160°C, extraction time 20min. and concentration of 50% ethanol. Comparison of the phenolic compounds from the rambutan peels in maceration 6h, soxhlet 4h, and SWE 20min., it indicated that total phenolic content (using Folin-Ciocalteu-s phenol reagent) was 26.42, 70.29, and 172.47mg of tannic acid equivalent (TAE) per g dry rambutan peel, respectively. The comparative study concluded that SWE was a promising technique for phenolic compounds extraction from rambutan peel, due to much more two times of conventional techniques and shorter extraction times.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, response surface methodology, subcritical water extraction, Rambutan peel

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14 Optimization of Two-Stage Pretreatment Combined with Microwave Radiation Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Jidapa Manaso

Abstract:

Pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugar that used for biobutanol production. Among pretreatment processes, microwave is considered to improve pretreatment efficiency due to its high heating efficiency, easy operation, and easily to combine with chemical reaction. The main objectives of this work are to investigate the feasibility of microwave pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of corncobs and to determine the optimal conditions using response surface methodology. Corncobs were pretreated via two-stage pretreatment in dilute sodium hydroxide (2 %) followed by dilute sulfuric acid 1 %. Pretreated corncobs were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugar. Statistical experimental design was used to optimize pretreatment parameters including temperature, residence time and solid-to-liquid ratio to achieve the highest amount of glucose. The results revealed that solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature had a significant effect on the amount of glucose.

Keywords: Pretreatment, response surface methodology, microwave radiation, Corncobs

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13 Design Optimization of Aerocapture with Aerodynamic-Environment-Adaptive Variable Geometry Flexible Aeroshell

Authors: Naohiko Honma, Kojiro Suzuki

Abstract:

This paper proposes the concept of aerocapture with aerodynamic-environment-adaptive variable geometry flexible aeroshell that vehicle deploys. The flexible membrane is composed of thin-layer film or textile as its aeroshell in order to solve some problems obstructing realization of aerocapture technique. Multi-objective optimization study is conducted to investigate solutions and derive design guidelines. As a result, solutions which can avoid aerodynamic heating and enlarge the corridor width up to 10% are obtained successfully, so that the effectiveness of this concept can be demonstrated. The deformation-use optimum solution changes its drag coefficient from 1.6 to 1.1, along with the change in dynamic pressure. Moreover, optimization results show that deformation-use solution requires the membrane for which upper temperature limit and strain limit are more than 700 K and 120%, respectively, and elasticity (Young-s modulus) is of order of 106 Pa.

Keywords: Optimization, response surface methodology, Aerocapture, flexible aeroshell

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12 Reducing Variation of Dyeing Process in Textile Manufacturing Industry

Authors: M. Zeydan, G. Toğa

Abstract:

This study deals with a multi-criteria optimization problem which has been transformed into a single objective optimization problem using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Grey Relational Analyses (GRA) approach. Grey-RSM and Grey-ANN are hybrid techniques which can be used for solving multi-criteria optimization problem. There have been two main purposes of this research as follows. 1. To determine optimum and robust fiber dyeing process conditions by using RSM and ANN based on GRA, 2. To obtain the best suitable model by comparing models developed by different methodologies. The design variables for fiber dyeing process in textile are temperature, time, softener, anti-static, material quantity, pH, retarder, and dispergator. The quality characteristics to be evaluated are nominal color consistency of fiber, maximum strength of fiber, minimum color of dyeing solution. GRA-RSM with exact level value, GRA-RSM with interval level value and GRA-ANN models were compared based on GRA output value and MSE (Mean Square Error) performance measurement of outputs with each other. As a result, GRA-ANN with interval value model seems to be suitable reducing the variation of dyeing process for GRA output value of the model.

Keywords: Optimization, Artificial Neural Network, response surface methodology, grey relational analysis

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