Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Reinforced Concrete Related Publications

34 Influence of Behavior Models on the Response of a Reinforced Concrete Frame: Multi-Fiber Approach

Authors: N. Khelil, A. Nekmouche, A. Kahil, I. Hamadou, M. Hamizi, Ne. Hannachi

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the influence of the nonlinear behavior models of the concrete (concrete_BAEL and concrete_UNI) as well as the confinement brought by the transverse reinforcement on the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame). These models as well as the confinement are integrated in the Cast3m finite element calculation code. The consideration of confinement (TAC, taking into account the confinement) provided by the transverse reinforcement and the non-consideration of confinement (without consideration of containment, WCC) in the presence and absence of a vertical load is studied. The application was made on a reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame) with 3 levels and 2 spans. The results show that on the one hand, the concrete_BAEL model slightly underestimates the resistance of the RC/frame in the plastic field, whereas the concrete_uni model presents the best results compared to the simplified model "concrete_BAEL", on the other hand, for the concrete-uni model, taking into account the confinement has no influence on the behavior of the RC/frame under imposed displacement up to a vertical load of 500 KN.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Reinforced Concrete, nonlinear calculation, behavior laws, fiber model confinement

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33 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Seismic, treatment, Corrosion, Reinforced Concrete, Cracks

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32 Assessment of Using Wastage Steel as Welded Reinforcement

Authors: Kamran Khan, Muhammad Murtaza Nasir, Safdar Abbas Zaidi

Abstract:

This work is carried out to evaluate the possibility of using to-be-wasted steel as reinforcement after welding together pieces of reinforcing steel bars, left over during construction activities. Tests were performed on a total of nine samples. These were made by welding pieces of reinforcing steel bars purchased from the local scrap steel market. The samples were tested in uniaxial tension using a universal testing machine (UTM). It was found that the failure of the welded bars is governed by the thickness of the weld. It is concluded that suitable design of the weld is essential for achieving the desired level of ductility/elongation of these bars, if they are to be used as conventional reinforcement in reinforced concrete members.

Keywords: welding, Reinforced Concrete, low cost housing, Ductility/elongation, welded reinforcement, wastage steel

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31 Studying the Theoretical and Laboratory Design of a Concrete Frame and Optimizing Its Design for Impact and Earthquake Resistance

Authors: Mehrdad Azimzadeh, Seyed Mohammadreza Jabbari, Mohammadreza Hosseinzadeh Alherd

Abstract:

This paper includes experimental results and analytical studies about increasing resistance of single-span reinforced concreted frames against impact factor and their modeling according to optimization methods and optimizing the behavior of these frames under impact loads. During this study, about 30 designs for different frames were modeled and made using specialized software like ANSYS and Sap and their behavior were examined under variable impacts. Then suitable strategies were offered for frames in terms of concrete mixing in order to optimize frame modeling. To reduce the weight of the frames, we had to use fine-grained stones. After designing about eight types of frames for each type of frames, three samples were designed with the aim of controlling the impact strength parameters, and a good shape of the frame was created for the impact resistance, which was a solid frame with muscular legs, and as a bond away from each other as much as possible with a 3 degree gradient in the upper part of the beam.

Keywords: Optimization, Reinforced Concrete, single-span frames, optimization methods of impact load

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30 Analysis of the Influence of Reshoring on the Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Keith Danila Aquino Neves, Júlia Borges dos Santos

Abstract:

There is little published research about the influence of execution methods on structural behavior. Structural analysis is typically based on a constructed building, considering the actions of all forces under which it was designed. However, during construction, execution loads do not match those designed, and in some cases the loads begin to act when the concrete has not yet reached its maximum strength. Changes to structural element support conditions may occur, resulting in unforeseen alterations to the structure’s behavior. Shoring is an example of a construction process that, if executed improperly, will directly influence the structural performance, and may result in unpredicted cracks and displacements. The NBR 14931/2004 standard, which guides the execution of reinforced concrete structures, mentions that shoring must be executed in a way that avoids unpredicted loads and that it may be removed after previous analysis of the structure’s behavior by the professional responsible for the structure’s design. Differences in structural behavior are reduced for small spans. It is important to qualify and quantify how the incorrect placement of shores can compromise a structure’s safety. The results of this research allowed a more precise acknowledgment of the relationship between spans and loads, for which the influence of execution processes can be considerable, and reinforced that civil engineering practice must be performed with the presence of a qualified professional, respecting existing standards’ guidelines.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Structural Behavior, reshoring, static scheme

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29 The Effect of Shear Wall Positions on the Seismic Response of Frame-Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The configuration of shear walls in plan of building will affect the seismic design of structure. The position of these walls will change the stiffness of each floor in the structure, the diaphragm center of mass displacement, and the drift of floor. Structural engineers preferred to distribute the walls in buildings to make the center of mass almost close enough to the center of rigidity, but to make this condition satisfied, they have many choices: construct the walls on the perimeter, or use intermediate walls, or use walls as core. In this paper and by using ETABS, each case is studied and compared to other cases according to three parameters: lateral stiffness, diaphragm displacement, and drift. It is found that the core walls are the best choice for the position of the walls in the buildings to resist earthquake loads.

Keywords: Seismic, Reinforced Concrete, Stiffness, lateral loads, shear wall, drift, lateral displacement, ACI code, ASCE7-16 code

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28 Effect of Columns Stiffness's and Number of Floors on the Accuracy of the Tributary Area Method

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The using of finite element programs in analyzing and designing buildings are becoming very popular, but there are many engineers still using the tributary area method (TAM) in designing the structural members such as columns. This study is an attempt to investigate the accuracy of the TAM results with different load condition (gravity and lateral load), different floors numbers, and different columns stiffness's. To conduct this study, linear elastic analysis in ETABS program is used. The results from finite element method are compared to those obtained from TAM. According to the analysis of the data obtained, it can be seen that there is significance difference between the real load carried by columns and the load which is calculated by using the TAM. Thus, using 3-D models are the best choice to calculate the real load effected on columns and design these columns according to this load.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Finite Element Method, Stiffness, lateral load, ETABS, axial loads, Tributary area method, multi-floor buildings

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27 The Effect of Cracking on Stiffness of Shear Walls under Lateral Loads

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The lateral stiffness of buildings is one of the most important properties which define resistance to displacements under lateral loads. Moreover, it has a great impact on the natural period of the structures. Different stiffness’s values can ultimately affect the behavior of the structure under the seismic load and the lateral forces that will be applied to it. In this study the effect of cracking is studied on 2D shell thin cantilever shear wall by using ETABS. Multi linear elastic analysis is conducted with the ACI stiffness modifiers for each analysis step. The results showed that the cracks affect the value of the drift especially at the top of the high rise buildings and this will change the lateral stiffness and so change the fundamental period of the structures which lead to change in the applied shear force that comes from the earthquake. Finally, this study emphasizes that the finite element method can be considered as a good tool to predict the tensile stresses in the elements.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Cracks, Stiffness, lateral loads, shear wall, ETABS, lateral displacement, ACI code

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26 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: R. Hizaji, Y. Heyrani Birak, J. Shahkarami

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: Capacity, Reinforced Concrete, deep beam, fixed-ended

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25 Numerical Investigation for External Strengthening of Dapped-End Beams

Authors: A. Abdullah, A. Abdel-Moniem, H. Madkour, K. Farah

Abstract:

The reduction in dapped end beams depth nearby the supports tends to produce stress concentration and hence results in shear cracks, if it does not have an adequate reinforcement detailing. This study investigates numerically the efficiency of applying different external strengthening techniques to the dapped end of such beams. A two-dimensional finite element model was built to predict the structural behavior of dapped ends strengthened with different techniques. The techniques included external bonding of the steel angle at the re-entrant corner, un-bounded bolt anchoring, external steel plate jacketing, exterior carbon fiber wrapping and/or stripping and external inclined steel plates. The FE analysis results are then presented in terms of the ultimate load capacities, load-deflection and crack pattern at failure. The results showed that the FE model, at various stages, was found to be comparable to the available test data. Moreover, it enabled the capture of the failure progress, with acceptable accuracy, which is very difficult in a laboratory test.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Strengthening Techniques, finite element, shear failure, numerical investigation, dapped-end beams

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24 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos

Abstract:

The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: Strengthening, earthquake resistance, Pushover Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, retrofit

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23 Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls

Authors: Gokhan Dok, Hakan Ozturk, Aydin Demir

Abstract:

The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.

Keywords: Numerical, Reinforced Concrete, shear wall, moment-curvature

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22 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, cyclic load, deep beam, fixed-ended

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21 Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan

Abstract:

This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.

Keywords: Predicting, Reinforced Concrete, Beams, shear capacity, strengthened, externally, CFRP composites

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20 Parametric Non-Linear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Supplemental Damping Systems

Authors: Giorgio Serino, Daniele Losanno

Abstract:

This paper focuses on parametric analysis of reinforced concrete structures equipped with supplemental damping braces. Practitioners still luck sufficient data for current design of damper added structures and often reduce the real model to a pure damper braced structure even if this assumption is neither realistic nor conservative. In the present study, the damping brace is modelled as made by a linear supporting brace connected in series with the viscous/hysteretic damper. Deformation capacity of existing structures is usually not adequate to undergo the design earthquake. In spite of this, additional dampers could be introduced strongly limiting structural damage to acceptable values, or in some cases, reducing frame response to elastic behavior. This work is aimed at providing useful considerations for retrofit of existing buildings by means of supplemental damping braces. The study explicitly takes into consideration variability of (a) relative frame to supporting brace stiffness, (b) dampers’ coefficient (viscous coefficient or yielding force) and (c) non-linear frame behavior. Non-linear time history analysis has been run to account for both dampers’ behavior and non-linear plastic hinges modelled by Pivot hysteretic type. Parametric analysis based on previous studies on SDOF or MDOF linear frames provide reference values for nearly optimal damping systems design. With respect to bare frame configuration, seismic response of the damper-added frame is strongly improved, limiting deformations to acceptable values far below ultimate capacity. Results of the analysis also demonstrated the beneficial effect of stiffer supporting braces, thus highlighting inadequacy of simplified pure damper models. At the same time, the effect of variable damping coefficient and yielding force has to be treated as an optimization problem.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Non-linear Analysis, brace stiffness, dissipative braces, plastic hinges

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19 Airfield Pavements Made of Reinforced Concrete: Dimensioning According to the Theory of Limit States and Eurocode

Authors: M. Linek, P. Nita

Abstract:

In the previous airfield construction industry, pavements made of reinforced concrete have been used very rarely; however, the necessity to use this type of pavements in an emergency situations justifies the need reference to this issue. The paper concerns the problem of airfield pavement dimensioning made of reinforced concrete and the evaluation of selected dimensioning methods of reinforced concrete slabs intended for airfield pavements. Analysis of slabs dimensioning, according to classical method of limit states has been performed and it has been compared to results obtained in case of methods complying with Eurocode 2 guidelines. Basis of an analysis was a concrete slab of class C35/45 with reinforcement, located in tension zone. Steel bars of 16.0 mm have been used as slab reinforcement. According to comparative analysis of obtained results, conclusions were reached regarding application legitimacy of the discussed methods and their design advantages.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Cement Concrete, airport pavements

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18 Seismic Behavior of Thin Shear Wall under the Exerted Loads

Authors: Ali A. Ofoghi

Abstract:

While the shear walls are not economical in buildings, thin shear walls are widely used in the buildings. In the present study, the ratio of different loads to their plasticity and seismic behavior of the wall under different loads have been investigated. Modeling and analysis are carried out by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that any increase in the exerted loads will have adverse effects on the seismic behavior of the thin shear walls and causes the wall to collapse by small displacements.

Keywords: Plasticity, Reinforced Concrete, nonlinear dynamic analysis, Thin shear wall

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17 Reliability of Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns: Part 1

Authors: Metwally Abdel Aziz Ahmed, Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr, Inas Mohamed Saleh

Abstract:

The main objective of structural design is to ensure safety and functional performance requirements of a structural system for its target reliability levels. In this study, the reliability index for the reinforcement concrete slender columns with rectangular cross section is studied. The variable parameters studied include the loads, the concrete compressive strength, the steel yield strength, the dimensions of concrete cross-section, the reinforcement ratio, and the location of steel placement. Risk analysis program was used to perform the analytical study. The effect of load eccentricity on the reliability index of reinforced concrete slender column was studied and presented. The results of this study indicate that the good quality control improve the performance of slender reinforced columns through increasing the reliability index β.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, Reinforced Concrete, slender column

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16 Application Problems of Anchor Dowels in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall and Frame Connections

Authors: Musa H. Arslan

Abstract:

Strengthening of the existing seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions. Addition of RC shear wall as infill or external walls into the structural system has been a commonly preferred strengthening technique since the Big Erzincan Earthquake occurred in Turkey, 1992. The newly added rigid infill walls act primarily as shear walls and relieve the non-ductile existing frames from being subjected to large shear demands providing that new RC inner or external walls are adequately anchored to the existing weak RC frame. The performance of the RC shear walls-RC weak frame connections by steel anchor dowels depends on some parameters such as compressive strength of the existing RC frame concrete, diameter and embedment length of anchored rebar, type of rebar, yielding stress of bar, properties of used chemicals, position of the anchor bars in RC. In this study, application problems of the steel anchor dowels have been checked with some field studies such as tensile test. Two different RC buildings which will be strengthened were selected, and before strengthening, some tests have been performed in the existing RC buildings. According to the field observation and experimental studies, if the concrete compressive strength is lower than 10 MPa, the performance of the anchors is reduced by 70%.

Keywords: Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Damage, shear wall, frame, anchor dowel

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15 Progressive Collapse of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Considering the Support Inclinations

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of the layered hyperbolic tower shells are studied considering the influences of changes in the supporting columns’ types and angles. 3-D time history analyses employing the finite element method are performed for the towers supported with I-type and ᴧ-type column. It is found that the inclination angle of the supporting columns is a very important parameter in optimization and safe design of the cooling towers against the progressive collapse. It is also concluded that use of Demand Capacity Ratio (DCR) criteria of the linear elastic approach recommended by GSA is un-conservative for the hyperbolic tower shells.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Cooling Towers, Crack Generation, progressive collapse

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14 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Static and Dynamic Loadings

Authors: Aaron Aboshio, Jianqioa Ye

Abstract:

In this study, static and dynamic responses of a typical reinforced concrete solid slab, designed to British Standard (BS 8110: 1997) and under self and live loadings for dance halls are reported. Linear perturbation analysis using finite element method was employed for modal, impulse loading and frequency response analyses of the slab under the aforementioned loading condition. Results from the static and dynamic analyses, comprising of the slab fundamental frequencies and mode shapes, dynamic amplification factor, maximum deflection, stress distributions among other valuable outcomes are presented and discussed. These were gauged with the limiting provisions in the design code with a view of justifying valid optimization objective function for the structure that can ensure both adequate strength and economical section for large clear span slabs. This is necessary owing to the continued increase in cost of erecting building structures and the squeeze on public finance globally.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Finite Element Method, slab, economical design, Modal dynamics

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13 Determining Earthquake Performances of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings by Using ANN

Authors: Musa H. Arslan, Murat Ceylan, Tayfun Koyuncu

Abstract:

In this study, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analytical method has been developed for analyzing earthquake performances of the Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings. 66 RC buildings with four to ten storeys were subjected to performance analysis according to the parameters which are the existing material, loading and geometrical characteristics of the buildings. The selected parameters have been thought to be effective on the performance of RC buildings. In the performance analyses stage of the study, level of performance possible to be shown by these buildings in case of an earthquake was determined on the basis of the 4-grade performance levels specified in Turkish Earthquake Code-2007 (TEC-2007). After obtaining the 4-grade performance level, selected 23 parameters of each building have been matched with the performance level. In this stage, ANN-based fast evaluation algorithm mentioned above made an economic and rapid evaluation of four to ten storey RC buildings. According to the study, the prediction accuracy of ANN has been found about 74%.

Keywords: Earthquake, Performance, Reinforced Concrete, Artificial Neural Network

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12 The Flexural Improvement of RC Beams Using an Inserted Plate between Concrete and FRP Bonding Surface

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon

Abstract:

The primary objective of this research is to improve the flexural capacity of FRP strengthened RC Beam structures with Aluminum and Titanium laminates. FRP rupture of flexural strengthened RC beams using FRP plates generally occurs at the interface between FRP plate and the beam. Therefore, in order to prevent brittle rupture and improve the ductility of the system, this research was performed by using Aluminum and Titanium materials between the two different structural systems. The research also aims to provide various strengthening/retrofitting methods for RC beam structures and to conduct a preliminary analysis of the demands on the structural systems. This was achieved by estimation using the experimental data from this research to identify a flexural capacity for the systems. Ultimately, the preliminary analysis of current study showed that the flexural capacity and system demand ductility was significantly improved by the systems inserted with Aluminum and Titanium anchor plates. Further verification of the experimental research is currently on its way to develop a new or reliable design guideline to retrofit/strengthen the concrete-FRP structural system can be evaluated.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Ductility, FRP laminate, flexural capacity

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11 Influence of Deficient Materials on the Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Sami W. Tabsh

Abstract:

The strength of reinforced concrete depends on the member dimensions and material properties. The properties of concrete and steel materials are not constant but random variables. The variability of concrete strength is due to batching errors, variations in mixing, cement quality uncertainties, differences in the degree of compaction and disparity in curing. Similarly, the variability of steel strength is attributed to the manufacturing process, rolling conditions, characteristics of base material, uncertainties in chemical composition, and the microstructure-property relationships. To account for such uncertainties, codes of practice for reinforced concrete design impose resistance factors to ensure structural reliability over the useful life of the structure. In this investigation, the effects of reductions in concrete and reinforcing steel strengths from the nominal values, beyond those accounted for in the structural design codes, on the structural reliability are assessed. The considered limit states are flexure, shear and axial compression based on the ACI 318-11 structural concrete building code. Structural safety is measured in terms of a reliability index. Probabilistic resistance and load models are compiled from the available literature. The study showed that there is a wide variation in the reliability index for reinforced concrete members designed for flexure, shear or axial compression, especially when the live-to-dead load ratio is low. Furthermore, variations in concrete strength have minor effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and sever effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. On the other hand, changes in steel yield strength have great effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and mild effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. Based on the outcome, it can be concluded that the reliability of beams is sensitive to changes in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement, whereas the reliability of columns is sensitive to variations in the concrete strength. Since the embedded target reliability in structural design codes results in lower structural safety in beams than in columns, large reductions in material strengths compromise the structural safety of beams much more than they affect columns.

Keywords: Reliability, Code, structural safety, Random variables, Reinforced Concrete, shear, reliability index, flexure, limit states

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10 Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Field Challenges and Simplified Code Formulas

Authors: Michel Soto Chalhoub

Abstract:

Building code-related literature provides recommendations on normalizing approaches to the calculation of the dynamic properties of structures. Most building codes make a distinction among types of structural systems, construction material, and configuration through a numerical coefficient in the expression for the fundamental period. The period is then used in normalized response spectra to compute base shear. The typical parameter used in simplified code formulas for the fundamental period is overall building height raised to a power determined from analytical and experimental results. However, reinforced concrete buildings which constitute the majority of built space in less developed countries pose additional challenges to the ones built with homogeneous material such as steel, or with concrete under stricter quality control. In the present paper, the particularities of reinforced concrete buildings are explored and related to current methods of equivalent static analysis. A comparative study is presented between the Uniform Building Code, commonly used for buildings within and outside the USA, and data from the Middle East used to model 151 reinforced concrete buildings of varying number of bays, number of floors, overall building height, and individual story height. The fundamental period was calculated using eigenvalue matrix computation. The results were also used in a separate regression analysis where the computed period serves as dependent variable, while five building properties serve as independent variables. The statistical analysis shed light on important parameters that simplified code formulas need to account for including individual story height, overall building height, floor plan, number of bays, and concrete properties. Such inclusions are important for reinforced concrete buildings of special conditions due to the level of concrete damage, aging, or materials quality control during construction. Overall results of the present analysis show that simplified code formulas for fundamental period and base shear may be applied but they require revisions to account for multiple parameters. The conclusion above is confirmed by the analytical model where fundamental periods were computed using numerical techniques and eigenvalue solutions. This recommendation is particularly relevant to code upgrades in less developed countries where it is customary to adopt, and mildly adapt international codes. We also note the necessity of further research using empirical data from buildings in Lebanon that were subjected to severe damage due to impulse loading or accelerated aging. However, we excluded this study from the present paper and left it for future research as it has its own peculiarities and requires a different type of analysis.

Keywords: Seismic Behavior, Reinforced Concrete, base shear, equivalent static analysis, simplified code formulas, response spectra

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9 Use of Regression Analysis in Determining the Length of Plastic Hinge in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Mehmet Alpaslan Köroğlu, Musa Hakan Arslan, Muslu Kazım Körez

Abstract:

Basic objective of this study is to create a regression analysis method that can estimate the length of a plastic hinge which is an important design parameter, by making use of the outcomes of (lateral load-lateral displacement hysteretic curves) the experimental studies conducted for the reinforced square concrete columns. For this aim, 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests results have been collected from the existing literature. The parameters which are thought affecting the plastic hinge length such as crosssection properties, features of material used, axial loading level, confinement of the column, longitudinal reinforcement bars in the columns etc. have been obtained from these 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests. In the study, when determining the length of plastic hinge, using the experimental test results, a regression analysis have been separately tested and compared with each other. In addition, the outcome of mentioned methods on determination of plastic hinge length of the reinforced concrete columns has been compared to other methods available in the literature.

Keywords: Regression analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Columns, plastic hinge length

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8 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert

Abstract:

The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, bond stress, development length, lapped splice length

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7 Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress within the Anchorage of Tensile Reinforcing Bars in Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert, Zhen- T. Chang

Abstract:

A reliable estimate of the average bond stress within the anchorage of steel reinforcing bars in tension is critically important for the design of reinforced concrete member. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program in the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES) at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia aimed at assessing the effects of different factors on the anchorage requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars. The study found that an increase in the anchorage length and bar diameter generally leads to a reduction of the average ultimate bond stress. By the extension of a well established analytical model of bond and anchorage, it is shown here that the differences in the average ultimate bond stress for different anchorage lengths is associated with the variable degree of plastic deformation in the tensile zone of the concrete surrounding the bar.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, bond stress, development length, anchorage

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6 Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, finite element, opening, deep beams

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5 Effect of U-Turn in Reinforced Concrete Dog-Legged Stair Slabs

Authors: Abdul Baqi, Zaid Mohammad

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete stair slabs with mid landings i.e. Dog-legged shaped are conventionally designed as per specifications of standard codes of practices which guide about the effective span according to the varying support conditions. Presently, the behavior of such slabs has been investigated using Finite Element method. A single flight stair slab with landings on both sides and supported at ends on wall, and a multi flight stair slab with landings and six different support arrangements have been analyzed. The results obtained for stresses, strains and deflections are used to describe the behavior of such stair slabs, including locations of critical moments and deflections. Values of critical moments obtained by F.E. analysis have also have been compared with that obtained from conventional analysis. Analytical results show that the moments are also critical near the kinks i.e. junction of mid-landing and inclined waist slab. This change in the behavior of dog-legged stair slab may be due to continuity of the material in transverse direction in two landings adjoining the waist slab, hence additional stiffness achieved. This change in the behavior is generally not taken care of in conventional method of design.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Dog-legged, Stair slab, F.E. Analysis, Landing

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