Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Reduction Related Publications

15 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan

Abstract:

Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: Coating, Reduction, Ironmaking, steel dust

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14 Properties and Approximation Distribution Reductions in Multigranulation Rough Set Model

Authors: Properties and Approximation Distribution Reductions in Multigranulation Rough Set Model

Abstract:

Some properties of approximation sets are studied in multi-granulation optimist model in rough set theory using maximal compatible classes. The relationships between or among lower and upper approximations in single and multiple granulation are compared and discussed. Through designing Boolean functions and discernibility matrices in incomplete information systems, the lower and upper approximation sets and reduction in multi-granulation environments can be found. By using examples, the correctness of computation approach is consolidated. The related conclusions obtained are suitable for further investigating in multiple granulation RSM.

Keywords: Reduction, Incomplete information system, maximal compatible class, multi-granulation rough set model

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13 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Aysen Onen, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz

Abstract:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: Reduction, graphene oxide fiber, coagulation bath, SO2 gas adsorption

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12 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez

Abstract:

Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Reduction, Oxidation, methyl orange, black sand mineral

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11 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Recycling, Reduction, Coke, iron oxide wastes

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10 Green-Reduction of Covalently Functionalized Graphene Oxide with Varying Stoichiometry

Authors: A. Pruna, D. Pullini, D. Busquets

Abstract:

Graphene-based materials were prepared by chemical reduction of covalently functionalized graphene oxide with environmentally friendly agents. Two varying stoichiometry of graphene oxide (GO) induced by using different chemical preparation conditions, further covalent functionalization of the GO materials with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride / N-hydroxysuccinimide and ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite as reducing agents were exploited in order to obtain controllable properties of the final solution-based graphene materials. The obtained materials were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed successful functionalization of the GO materials, while a comparison of the deoxygenation efficiency of the two-type functionalized graphene oxide suspensions by the different reducing agents has been made, revealing the strong dependence of their properties on the GO structure and reducing agents.

Keywords: Reduction, Graphene Oxide, ascorbic acid, covalent functionalization, sodium bisulfate

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9 When Explanations “Cause“ Error: A Look at Representations and Compressions

Authors: Michael Lissack

Abstract:

We depend upon explanation in order to “make sense" out of our world. And, making sense is all the more important when dealing with change. But, what happens if our explanations are wrong? This question is examined with respect to two types of explanatory model. Models based on labels and categories we shall refer to as “representations." More complex models involving stories, multiple algorithms, rules of thumb, questions, ambiguity we shall refer to as “compressions." Both compressions and representations are reductions. But representations are far more reductive than compressions. Representations can be treated as a set of defined meanings – coherence with regard to a representation is the degree of fidelity between the item in question and the definition of the representation, of the label. By contrast, compressions contain enough degrees of freedom and ambiguity to allow us to make internal predictions so that we may determine our potential actions in the possibility space. Compressions are explanatory via mechanism. Representations are explanatory via category. Managers are often confusing their evocation of a representation (category inclusion) as the creation of a context of compression (description of mechanism). When this type of explanatory error occurs, more errors follow. In the drive for efficiency such substitutions are all too often proclaimed – at the manager-s peril..

Keywords: Reduction, model, Emergence, Coherence

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8 Particle Swarm Optimization with Reduction for Global Optimization Problems

Authors: Michiharu Maeda, Shinya Tsuda

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm of particle swarm optimization with reduction for global optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization is an algorithm which refers to the collective motion such as birds or fishes, and a multi-point search algorithm which finds a best solution using multiple particles. Particle swarm optimization is so flexible that it can adapt to a number of optimization problems. When an objective function has a lot of local minimums complicatedly, the particle may fall into a local minimum. For avoiding the local minimum, a number of particles are initially prepared and their positions are updated by particle swarm optimization. Particles sequentially reduce to reach a predetermined number of them grounded in evaluation value and particle swarm optimization continues until the termination condition is met. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we examine the minimum by using test functions compared to existing algorithms. Furthermore the influence of best value on the initial number of particles for our algorithm is discussed.

Keywords: Metaheuristics, Global optimization, Reduction, Particle Swarm Optimization

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7 Computing SAGB-Gröbner Basis of Ideals of Invariant Rings by Using Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Abdolali Basiri, Sajjad Rahmany

Abstract:

The link between Gröbner basis and linear algebra was described by Lazard [4,5] where he realized the Gr┬¿obner basis computation could be archived by applying Gaussian elimination over Macaulay-s matrix . In this paper, we indicate how same technique may be used to SAGBI- Gröbner basis computations in invariant rings.

Keywords: Reduction, Grobner basis, SAGBI- Gröbner basis, Invariant ring, permutation groups

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6 Effect of Concentration of Sodium Borohydrate on the Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles via Microemulsion Route

Authors: W. L. Liong, Srimala Sreekantan, Sabar D. Hutagalung

Abstract:

The effect of concentration of reduction agent of sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) on the properties of silicon nanoparticles synthesized via microemulsion route is reported. In this work, the concentration of the silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) that served as silicon source with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as stabilizer and surfactant, respectively, are keep fixed. Four samples with varied concentration of NaBH4 from 0.05 M to 0.20 M were synthesized. It was found that the lowest concentration of NaBH4 gave better formation of silicon nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Reduction, Silicon, Microelmusion

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5 Recycling of Tungsten Alloy Swarf

Authors: A. A. Alhazza

Abstract:

The recycling process of Tungsten alloy (Swarf) by oxidation reduction technique have been investigated. The reduced powder was pressed under a pressure 20Kg/cm2 and sintered at 1150°C in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The particle size of the recycled alloy powder was 1-3 μm and the shape was regular at a reduction temperature 800°C. The chemical composition of the recycled alloy is the same as the primary Swarf.

Keywords: Recycling, Reduction, Oxidation, Swarf

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4 The role of pH on Cr(VI) Reduction and Removal by Arthrobacter Viscosus

Authors: B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, I. C. Neves, T. Tavares

Abstract:

Arthrobacter viscosus biomass was used for Cr(VI) biosorption. The effect of pH on Cr(VI) reduction and removal from aqueous solution was studied in the range of 1-4. The Cr(VI) removal involves both redox reaction and adsorption of metal ions on biomass surface. The removal rate of Cr(VI) was enhanced by very acid conditions, while higher solution pH values favored the removal of total chromium. The best removal efficiency and uptake were reached at pH 4, 72.5 % and 12.6 mgCr/gbiomass, respectively.

Keywords: Chromium, Reduction, biosorption

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3 Modeling Language for Constructing Solvers in Machine Learning: Reductionist Perspectives

Authors: Tsuyoshi Okita

Abstract:

For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach in order to make a solver quickly. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem. It is noted that our formal modeling language is not intend for providing an efficient notation for data mining application, but for facilitating a designer who develops solvers in machine learning.

Keywords: Reduction, formal language, statistical inference problem

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2 In situ Observation of the State and Stability of Hemoglobin Adsorbed onto Glass Surface by Slab Optical Waveguide (SOWG) Spectroscopy

Authors: Akiko Takatsu, Kenji Kato, Naoki Matsuda, Masayoshi Matsui, Akiko Nakahara

Abstract:

The state and stability of hemoglobin adsorbed on the glass surface was investigated using slab optical waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy. The peak position of the absorption band of hemoglobin adsorbed on the glass surface was same as that of the hemoglobin in solution. This result suggests that no significant denaturation occurred by adsorption. The adsorption of hemoglobin is relatively strong that the hemoglobin molecules even remained adsorbed after rinsing the cell with buffer solution. The peak shift caused by the reduction of adsorbed hemoglobin was also observed.

Keywords: Reduction, hemoglobin, slab optical waveguide spectroscopy, solid/liquid interface

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1 Modeling Language for Machine Learning

Authors: Tsuyoshi Okita, Tatsuya Niwa

Abstract:

For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem.

Keywords: Reduction, formal language, statistical inference problem

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