Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Radiation Related Publications

19 Radiation Effects on the Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Past in an Infinite Vertical Plate with Heat Source

Authors: Tusharkanta Das, Tumbanath Samantara, Sukanta Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

Unsteady effects of MHD free convection flow past in an infinite vertical plate with heat source in presence of radiation with reference to all critical parameters that appear in field equations are studied in this paper. The governing equations are developed by usual Boussinesq’s approximation. The problem is solved by using perturbation technique. The results are obtained for velocity, temperature, Nusselt number and skin-friction. The effects of magnetic parameter, prandtl number, Grashof number, permeability parameter, heat source/sink parameter and radiation parameter are discussed on flow characteristics and shown by means of graphs and tables.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Radiation, MHD, porous medium, free convection, suction

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18 Variability in Near-Surface Ultraviolet Radiation and Its Dependence on Atmospheric Parameters

Authors: Yusuff Idowu Moshood, Sanni Mohammed

Abstract:

Natural radiations such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation sourced from sun are known to be the main causes of skin cancer, sunburn, eye damage, premature aging of skin and other skin related diseases. Its percentage of radiation reaching the earth populace and its impacts are not well known. Its variability in near-surface relating to its impacts on populace depends on some atmospheric parameters. Hence, this work was embarked on to determine the variability in near-surface UV radiation and its dependency on some atmospheric parameters at different time of the day in Offa, Nigeria. The variability was determined using the data obtained from meteorological garden, Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria. The data obtained were solar UV radiation, solar radiation, temperature, humidity and pressure at 30 minutes interval. Relationships were determined and correlations were derived using SPSS Pearson Correlation tool. The results showed a significant level of correlation with p-value of 0.01 and 0.05 levels. Thus, the results revealed some good relationships between the solar UV radiation and other atmospheric parameters with significance level less than p-value obtained. Inferentially, interdependent relationships were found to exist. Therefore, the nature of relationship obtained could be a yardstick for decision making in short term environmental planning on solar UV radiation depending of some atmospheric parameters within Offa locality.

Keywords: Radiation, correlation, inferential, yardstick

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17 Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Productivity of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Authors: Shiva Osouli, Mehrdad Ahmadi, Mohamad Babaie, Bahareh Salehi, Nadia Kalantaraian

Abstract:

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious pests in olive orchards in growing province in Iran. The female lay eggs in green olive fruit and larvae hatch inside the fruit, where they feed upon the fruit matters. One of the main ecologically friendly and species-specific systems of pest control is the sterile insect technique (SIT) which is based on the release of large numbers of sterilized insects. The objective of our work was to develop a SIT against B. oleae by using of gamma radiation for the laboratory and field trial in Iran. Oviposition of female mated by irradiated males is one of the main parameters to determine achievement of SIT. To conclude the sterile dose, pupae were placed under 0 to 160 Gy of gamma radiation. The main factor in SIT is the productivity of females which are mated by irradiated males. The emerged adults from irradiated pupae were mated with untreated adults of the same age by confining them inside the transparent cages. The fecundity of the irradiated males mated with non-irradiated females was decreased with the increasing radiation dose level. It was observed that the number of eggs and also the percentage of the egg hatching was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in either IM x NF crosses compared with NM x NF crosses in F1 generation at all doses. Also, the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid between irradiated and non-irradiated females crossed with irradiated males, which suggests that the males were susceptible to gamma radiation. The egg hatching percentage declined markedly with the increase of the radiation dose of the treated males in mating trials which demonstrated that egg hatch rate was dose dependent. Our results specified that gamma radiation affects the longevity of irradiated B. oleae larvae (established from irradiated pupae) and significantly increased their larval duration. Results show the gamma radiation, and SIT can be used successfully against olive fruit flies.

Keywords: Radiation, Fertility, olive fruit fly, SIT

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16 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods

Authors: Ali Kiani, Mohammad Khosravi, Behroz Dastar, Parvin Showrang

Abstract:

Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely.

Keywords: Radiation, phytic acid, antitrypsin, gamma anti-nutritional components

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15 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: Radiation, stress, Mesh, Sediment, current, swell, mike21

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14 DNA of Hibiscus sabdariffa Damaged by Radiation from 900 MHz GSM Antenna

Authors: A. O. Oluwajobi, O. A. Falusi, N. A. Zubbair, T. Owoeye, F. Ladejobi, M. C. Dangana, A. Abubakar

Abstract:

The technology of mobile telephony has positively enhanced human life and reports on the bio safety of the radiation from their antennae have been contradictory, leading to serious litigations and violent protests by residents in several parts of the world. The crave for more information, as requested by WHO in order to resolve this issue, formed the basis for this study on the effect of the radiation from 900 MHz GSM antenna on the DNA of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Seeds of H. sabdariffa were raised in pots placed in three replicates at 100, 200, 300 and 400 metres from the GSM antennae in three selected test locations and a control where there was no GSM signal. Temperature (˚C) and the relative humidity (%) of study sites were measured for the period of study (24 weeks). Fresh young leaves were harvested from each plant at two, eight and twenty-four weeks after sowing and the DNA extracts were subjected to RAPD-PCR analyses. There were no significant differences between the weather conditions (temperature and relative humidity) in all the study locations. However, significant differences were observed in the intensities of radiations between the control (less than 0.02 V/m) and the test (0.40-1.01 V/m) locations. Data obtained showed that DNA of samples exposed to rays from GSM antenna had various levels of distortions, estimated at 91.67%. Distortions occurred in 58.33% of the samples between 2-8 weeks of exposure while 33.33% of the samples were distorted between 8-24 weeks exposure. Approximately 8.33% of the samples did not show distortions in DNA while 33.33% of the samples had their DNA damaged twice, both at 8 and at 24 weeks of exposure. The study showed that radiation from the 900 MHz GSM antenna is potent enough to cause distortions to DNA of H. sabdariffa even within 2-8 weeks of exposure. DNA damage was also independent of the distance from the antenna. These observations would qualify emissions from GSM mast as environmental hazard to the existence of plant biodiversities and all life forms in general. These results will trigger efforts to prevent further erosion of plant genetic resources which have been threatening food security and also the risks posed to living organisms, thereby making our environment very safe for our existence while we still continue to enjoy the benefits of the GSM technology.

Keywords: Radiation, Dna, Damage, GSM antenna

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13 Radiation Effect on MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Power-Law Stretching Sheet with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Motahar Reza, neha sharma, Rajni Chahal

Abstract:

This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson fluid over a nonlinearly permeable stretching surface with chemical reaction in the presence of variable magnetic field. The effect of thermal radiation is considered to control the rate of heat transfer at the surface. Using similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations of this problem are reduced into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by finite difference method. It is observed that the velocity at fixed point decreases with increasing the nonlinear stretching parameter but the temperature increases with nonlinear stretching parameter.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Radiation, boundary layer flow, nonlinear stretching, Casson fluid

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12 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation, photons respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photons absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that radiation, photons respectively, have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: Radiation, photon, electrostatic, electron, proton

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11 Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Rehab I. Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 micro-controller, able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 micro-controller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code has been used for this hamming code protection.

Keywords: Radiation, Hamming code, hardening, bitflip

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10 In silico Repopulation Model of Various Tumour Cells during Treatment Breaks in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

Authors: Loredana G. Marcu, David Marcu, Sanda M. Filip

Abstract:

Advanced head and neck cancers are aggressive tumours, which require aggressive treatment. Treatment efficiency is often hindered by cancer cell repopulation during radiotherapy, which is due to various mechanisms triggered by the loss of tumour cells and involves both stem and differentiated cells. The aim of the current paper is to present in silico simulations of radiotherapy schedules on a virtual head and neck tumour grown with biologically realistic kinetic parameters. Using the linear quadratic formalism of cell survival after radiotherapy, altered fractionation schedules employing various treatment breaks for normal tissue recovery are simulated and repopulation mechanism implemented in order to evaluate the impact of various cancer cell contribution on tumour behaviour during irradiation. The model has shown that the timing of treatment breaks is an important factor influencing tumour control in rapidly proliferating tissues such as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Furthermore, not only stem cells but also differentiated cells, via the mechanism of abortive division, can contribute to malignant cell repopulation during treatment.

Keywords: Radiation, Stem Cell, tumour repopulation, squamous cell carcinoma

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9 Analysis of Conduction-Radiation Heat Transfer in a Planar Medium: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoudi, Imen Mejri, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

In this paper, the 1-D conduction-radiation problem is solved by the lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of various parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the wall emissivity are studied. In order to check on the accuracy of the numerical technique employed for the solution of the considered problem, the present numerical code was validated with the published study. The found results are in good agreement with those published

Keywords: Radiation, conduction, lattice Boltzmann method, planar medium

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8 Large Eddy Simulation of Compartment Fire with Gas Combustible

Authors: Abbassi Mohamed Ammar, Mliki Bouchmel, Kamel Geudri, Chrigui Mouldi, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to use the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to investigate the behavior of a kerosene small-scale fire. FDS is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed specifically for fire applications. Throughout its development, FDS is used for the resolution of practical problems in fire protection engineering. At the same time FDS is used to study fundamental fire dynamics and combustion. Predictions are based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky turbulence model. LES directly computes the large-scale eddies and the sub-grid scale dissipative processes are modeled. This technique is the default turbulence model which was used in this study. The validation of the numerical prediction is done using a direct comparison of combustion output variables to experimental measurements. Effect of the mesh size on the temperature evolutions is investigated and optimum grid size is suggested. Effect of width openings is investigated. Temperature distribution and species flow are presented for different operating conditions. The effect of the composition of the used fuel on atmospheric pollution is also a focus point within this work. Good predictions are obtained where the size of the computational cells within the fire compartment is less than 1/10th of the characteristic fire diameter.

Keywords: Combustion, Radiation, Turbulence, Pollution, large eddy simulation

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7 Radiation Heat Transfer in Planar SOFC Components: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoudi, Imen Mejri, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

Thermal radiation plays a very important role in the heat transfer combination through the various components of the SOFC fuel cell operating at high temperatures. Lattice Boltzmann method is used for treating conduction-radiation heat transfer in the electrolyte. The thermal radiation heat transfer is coupled to the overall energy conservation equations through the divergence of the local radiative flux. The equation of energy in one dimension is numerically resolved by using the Lattice Boltzmann method. A computing program (FORTRAN) is developed locally for this purpose in order to obtain fields of temperature in every element of the cell. The parameters investigated are: functioning temperature, cell voltages and electrolyte thickness. The results show that the radiation effect increases with increasing the electrolyte thickness, also increases with increasing the functioning temperature and decreases with the increase of the voltage of the cell.

Keywords: Radiation, conduction, SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method, planar medium

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6 Radiation Heat Transfer Effect in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoudi, Imen Mejri, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

The radiation effect within the solid anode, electrolyte, and cathode SOFC layers problem has been investigated in this paper. Energy equation is solved by the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Rosseland method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrodes. The Schuster-Schwarzschild method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrolyte. Without radiative effect, the found results are in good agreement with those published. The obtained results show that the radiative effect can be neglected.

Keywords: Radiation, conduction, SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method

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5 Radiation Effect on Unsteady MHD Flow over a Stretching Surface

Authors: Seripah Awang Kechil, Siti Khuzaimah Soid, Zanariah Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Sukri Abd Aziz

Abstract:

Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a continuously stretching surface in the presence of radiation is examined. By similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by employing the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method scheme with shooting technique in Maple software environment. The effects of unsteadiness parameter, radiation parameter, magnetic parameter and Prandtl number on the heat transfer characteristics are obtained and discussed. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases as the Prandtl number and unsteadiness parameter increase but decreases with magnetic and radiation parameter.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Radiation, Magnetohydrodynamics, unsteadiness

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4 Effects of Mixed Convection and Double Dispersion on Semi Infinite Vertical Plate in Presence of Radiation

Authors: A.S.N.Murti, D.R.V.S.R.K. Sastry, P.K. Kameswaran, T. Poorna Kantha

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of radiation, chemical reaction and double dispersion on mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi vertical plate are considered. The plate is embedded in a Newtonian fluid saturated non - Darcy (Forchheimer flow model) porous medium. The Forchheimer extension and first order chemical reaction are considered in the flow equations. The governing sets of partial differential equations are nondimensionalized and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations which are then solved numerically by Fourth order Runge– Kutta method. Numerical results for the detail of the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles as well as heat transfer rates (Nusselt number) and mass transfer rates (Sherwood number) against various parameters are presented in graphs. The obtained results are checked against previously published work for special cases of the problem and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Radiation, Heat and Mass Transfer, Chemical Reaction, mixed convection, Double dispersion

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3 Evaluation of Radiation Synthesized β-Glucan Hydrogel Wound Dressing using Rat Models

Authors: Hui J. Gwon, Youn M. Lim, Jong S. Park, Young C. Nho

Abstract:

In this study, hydrogels consisted of polyvinyl alcohol, propylene glycol and β-glucan were developed by radiation technique for wound dressing. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by examining of physical properties such as gel fraction and absorption ratio. The gel fraction and absorption ratio were dependent on the crosslinking density. On observing the wound healing of rat skin, the resulting hydrogels accelerated the wound healing comparing to cotton gauze. Therefore, the PVA/propylene glycol/β-glucan blended hydrogels can greatly accelerate the healing without causing irritation.

Keywords: Radiation, Wound Dressing, poly(vinyl alcohol), β-glucan, propylene glycol

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2 Steady State Transpiration Cooling System in Ni-Cr Open-Cellular Porous Plate

Authors: B. Krittacom, P. Amatachaya, P. Khantikomol, R. Sangchot

Abstract:

The steady-state temperature for one-dimensional transpiration cooling system has been conducted experimentally and numerically to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of combined convection and radiation. The Nickel –Chrome (Ni-Cr) open-cellular porous material having porosity of 0.93 and pores per inch (PPI) of 21.5 was examined. The upper surface of porous plate was heated by the heat flux of incoming radiation varying from 7.7 - 16.6 kW/m2 whereas air injection velocity fed into the lower surface was varied from 0.36 - 1.27 m/s, and was then rearranged as Reynolds number (Re). For the report of the results in the present study, two efficiencies including of temperature and conversion efficiency were presented. Temperature efficiency indicating how close the mean temperature of a porous heat plate to that of inlet air, and increased rapidly with the air injection velocity (Re). It was then saturated and had a constant value at Re higher than 10. The conversion efficiency, which was regarded as the ability of porous material in transferring energy by convection after absorbed from heat radiation, decreased with increasing of the heat flux and air injection velocity. In addition, it was then asymptotic to a constant value at the Re higher than 10. The numerical predictions also agreed with experimental data very well.

Keywords: Radiation, Convection, Reynolds number, open-cellular, transpiration cooling

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1 Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Cadmium Chloride Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Irradiated Rats

Authors: Nashwa Kamel Ibrahim

Abstract:

Kombucha Tea Ferment (KT), was given to male albino rats, (1ml/Kg of body weight), via gavages, during 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of 3.5 mg/Kg body weight CdCl2 and/or whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy, and during 4 weeks after each treatment. Hepatic and nephritic pathological changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and creatinine and urea contents with significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney tissues expressed by significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents associated to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were recorded. KT administration results in recovery of all the pathological changes. It could be concluded that KT might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage induced by exposure to cadmium and/ or γ-irradiation.

Keywords: Radiation, rats, cadmium, kombucha

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