V. R. Sanal Kumar

Publications

11 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj

Abstract:

In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine

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10 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, K. Praveen Kumar, S. Vigneshwaran, O. S. Pradeep, K. Jeyendran

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: Combustion Chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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9 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system, the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: robotic library, Wi-Fi library, GPS based based robotic library, library management system

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8 Studies on Pre-Ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, S. Ajith, S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar

Abstract:

In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the pre-ignition flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with two different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a validated 3D, unsteady, 2nd-order implicit, SST k- ω turbulence model. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier- Stokes equations is employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create preignition pressure oscillations leading to thrust oscillations due to the flow unsteadiness and recirculation. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations are diminished rapidly thereby reaching the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: ignition transient, solid rockets, starting transient, Pre-Ignition chamber dynamics, thrust oscillations in SRMs

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7 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, S. Vignesh, N. Vishnu, S. Vigneshwaran, M. Vishnu Anand, Dinesh Kumar Babu

Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out at different secondary injection locations to identifying the highest unsymmetrical distribution of the main gas flow due to shock waves, which produces a desirable side force more lucratively for vectoring. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet is more efficient in certain locations at the divergent region of a CD nozzle than a case with supersonic single jet with same mass flow rate. We observed that the best axial location of the self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet nozzle with a given jet interaction angle, built-in to a CD nozzle having area ratio 1.797, is 0.991 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the throat location. We also observed that the flexible steering is possible after invoking ON/OFF facility to the secondary nozzles for meeting the onboard mission requirements. Through our case studies we concluded that the supersonic self-impinging secondary double jet at predesigned jet interaction angle and location can provide more flexible steering options facilitating with 8.81% higher thrust vectoring efficiency than the conventional supersonic single secondary jet without compromising the payload capability of any supersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, TVC in aerospace vehicles, self-impinging secondary supersonic jet

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6 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: intermediate non-destructive testing, process layout design, Medium scale industries

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5 Diagnostic Investigation of Aircraft Performance at Different Winglet Cant Angles

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, Dinesh M., Kenny Mark V., Santhosh Kumar B., Sree Radesh R.

Abstract:

Comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out to examine the best aerodynamic performance of subsonic aircraft at different winglet cant angles using a validated 3D k-ω SST model. In the parametric analytical studies NACA series of airfoils are selected. Basic design of the winglet is selected from the literature and flow features of the entire wing including the winglet tip effects have been examined with different cant angles varying from 150 to 600 at different angles of attack up to 140. We have observed, among the cases considered in this study that a case, with 150 cant angle the aerodynamics performance of the subsonic aircraft during takeoff was found better up to an angle of attack of 2.80 and further its performance got diminished at higher angles of attack. Analyses further revealed that increasing the winglet cant angle from 150 to 600 at higher angles of attack could negate the performance deterioration and additionally it could enhance the peak CL/CD on the order of 3.5%. The investigated concept of variable-cant-angle winglets appears to be a promising alternative for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamic efficiency, flexible winglets, Cant-angle, Drag reduction

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4 3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, J. Abdullah, R. Kanmaniraja, R. Freshipali, K. Niranjan, K. Balasubramani

Abstract:

The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, Chevron, acoustic level, shape optimization of Chevron nozzles, jet noise suppression

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3 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath

Abstract:

The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift. roadable airplane

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2 Numerical Studies on Flow Field Characteristics of Cavity Based Scramjet Combustors

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Rakesh Arasu, Sasitharan Ambicapathy, Sivaraj Ponnusamy, Mohanraj Murugesan

Abstract:

The flow field within the combustor of scramjet engine is very complex and poses a considerable challenge in the design and development of a supersonic combustor with an optimized geometry. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on flow field characteristics of different cavity based scramjet combustors with transverse injection of hydrogen have been carried out for both non-reacting and reacting flows. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated 2D unsteady, density based 1st-order implicit k-omega turbulence model with multi-component finite rate reacting species. The results show a wide variety of flow features resulting from the interactions between the injector flows, shock waves, boundary layers, and cavity flows. We conjectured that an optimized cavity is a good choice to stabilize the flame in the hypersonic flow, and it generates a recirculation zone in the scramjet combustor. We comprehended that the cavity based scramjet combustors having a bearing on the source of disturbance for the transverse jet oscillation, fuel/air mixing enhancement, and flameholding improvement. We concluded that cavity shape with backward facing step and 45o forward ramp is a good choice to get higher temperatures at the exit compared to other four models of scramjet combustors considered in this study.

Keywords: Hypersonic Flow, Flame holding, Scramjet combustor, Supersonic combustor

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1 Diagnostic Investigation of Liftoff Time of Solid Propellant Rockets

Authors: Vignesh Rangaraj, Jerin John, N. Naveen, M. Karuppasamy Pandian, P. Sathyan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper parametric analytical studies have been carried out to examine the intrinsic flow physics pertaining to the liftoff time of solid propellant rockets. Idealized inert simulators of solid rockets are selected for numerical studies to examining the preignition chamber dynamics. Detailed diagnostic investigations have been carried out using an unsteady two-dimensional k-omega turbulence model. We conjectured from the numerical results that the altered variations of the igniter jet impingement angle, turbulence level, time and location of the first ignition, flame spread characteristics, the overall chamber dynamics including the boundary layer growth history are having bearing on the time for nozzle flow chocking for establishing the required thrust for the rocket liftoff. We concluded that the altered flow choking time of strap-on motors with the pre-determined identical ignition time at the lift off phase will lead to the malfunctioning of the rocket. We also concluded that, in the light of the space debris, an error in predicting the liftoff time can lead to an unfavorable launch window amounts the satellite injection errors and/or the mission failures.

Keywords: Solid Rocket, Liftoff, Nozzle Choking, Takeoff

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Abstracts

17 Numerical Studies on 2D and 3D Boundary Layer Blockage and External Flow Choking at Wing in Ground Effect

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, N. Deepak, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, E. Manikandan, M. Sulthan Ariff Rahman, S. Kanagaraj, K. Dhanalakshmi, P. Chilambarasan C. Abhimanyu

Abstract:

In this paper using a validated double precision, density-based implicit standard k-ε model, the detailed 2D and 3D numerical studies have been carried out to examine the external flow choking at wing-in-ground (WIG) effect craft. The CFD code is calibrated using the exact solution based on the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed that at the identical WIG effect conditions the numerically predicted 2D boundary layer blockage is significantly higher than the 3D case and as a result, the airfoil exhibited an early external flow choking than the corresponding wing, which is corroborated with the exact solution. We concluded that, in lieu of the conventional 2D numerical simulation, it is invariably beneficial to go for a realistic 3D simulation of the wing in ground effect, which is analogous and would have the aspects of a real-time parametric flow. We inferred that under the identical flying conditions the chances of external flow choking at WIG effect is higher for conventional aircraft than an aircraft facilitating a divergent channel effect at the bottom surface of the fuselage as proposed herein. We concluded that the fuselage and wings integrated geometry optimization can improve the overall aerodynamic performance of WIG craft. This study is a pointer to the designers and/or pilots for perceiving the zone of danger a priori due to the anticipated external flow choking at WIG effect craft for safe flying at the close proximity of the terrain and the dynamic surface of the marine.

Keywords: external flow choking, boundary layer blockage, chord dominated ground effect, WIG effect

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16 Design Optimization of Chevron Nozzles for Jet Noise Reduction

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, E. Manikandan, C. Chilambarasan, M. Sulthan Ariff Rahman, S. Kanagaraj

Abstract:

The noise regulations around the major airports and rocket launching stations due to the environmental concern have made jet noise a crucial problem in the present day aero-acoustics research. The three main acoustic sources in jet nozzles are aerodynamics noise, noise from craft systems and engine and mechanical noise. Note that the majority of engine noise is due to the jet noise coming out from the exhaust nozzle. The previous studies reveal that the potential of chevron nozzles for aircraft engines noise reduction is promising owing to the fact that the jet noise continues to be the dominant noise component, especially during take-off. In this paper parametric analytical studies have been carried out for optimizing the number of chevron lobes, the lobe length and tip shape, and the level of penetration of the chevrons into the flow over a variety of flow conditions for various aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, SST k-ω turbulence model with enhanced wall functions. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Navier–Stokes equations is employed. We inferred that the geometry optimization of an environmental friendly chevron nozzle with a suitable number of chevron lobes with aerodynamically efficient tip contours for facilitating silent exit flow will enable a commendable sound reduction without much thrust penalty while comparing with the conventional supersonic nozzles with same area ratio.

Keywords: shape optimization of Chevron nozzles, jet noise suppression, chevron nozzle, jet acoustic level

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15 Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Ferrari F430 Flying Car with Enhanced Takeoff Performance

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, E. Manikandan, C. Chilambarasan, M. Sulthan Ariff Rahman, S. Kanagaraj, Abhimanyu Pugazhandhi

Abstract:

The designer of any flying car has the major concern on the creation of upward force with low takeoff velocity, with minimum drag, coupled with better stability and control warranting its overall high performance both in road and air. In this paper, 3D numerical simulations of external flow of a Ferrari F430 fitted with different NACA series rectangular wings have been carried out for finding the best aerodynamic design option in road and air. The principle that allows a car to rise off the ground by creating lift using deployable wings with desirable lifting characteristics is the main theme of our paper. Additionally, the car body is streamlined in accordance with the speed range. Further, the rounded and tapered shape of the top of the car is designed to slice through the air and minimize the wind resistance. The 3D SST k-ω turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies, we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 can be converted into a lucrative flying car with best fit NACA wing through a proper aerodynamic design optimization.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, roadable airplane, Ferrari F430

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
14 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj

Abstract:

In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
13 3D Numerical Studies and Design Optimization of a Swallowtail Butterfly with Twin Tail

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, M. Jegannath, V. Thenmozhi, Arunkumar Balamurugan, G. Soundharya Lakshmi

Abstract:

Aerodynamics of insects is of topical interest in aeronautical industries due to its wide applications on various types of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Note that the MAVs are having smaller geometric dimensions operate at significantly lower speeds on the order of 10 m/s and their Reynolds numbers range is approximately 1,50,000 or lower. In this paper, numerical study has been carried out to capture the flow physics of a biological inspired Swallowtail Butterfly with fixed wing having twin tail at a flight speed of 10 m/s. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out on swallow butterfly with twin tail flying at a speed of 10 m/s with uniform upper and lower angles of attack in both lateral and longitudinal position for identifying the best wing orientation with better aerodynamic efficiency. Grid system in the computational domain is selected after a detailed grid refinement exercises. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with different lateral and longitudinal angles of attack for finding the better aerodynamic efficiency at the same flight speed. The results reveal that lift coefficient significantly increases with marginal changes in the longitudinal angle and vice versa. But in the case of drag coefficient the conventional changes have been noticed, viz., drag increases at high longitudinal angles. We observed that the change of twin tail section has a significant impact on the formation of vortices and aerodynamic efficiency of the MAV’s. We concluded that for every lateral angle there is an exact longitudinal orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient flying condition of any MAV. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of Twin tail MAVs with flapping wings.

Keywords: mav, aerodynamics of insects, swallowtail butterfly, twin tail MAV design

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
12 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, K. Praveen Kumar, S. Vigneshwaran, O. S. Pradeep, K. Jeyendran

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: Combustion Chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
11 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh

Abstract:

In this paper an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: GPS bsed based Robotic library, library management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
10 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash

Abstract:

In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine, alpha stirling engine, beta double piston stirling engine, electricity from stirling engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
9 Studies on Pre-ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, S. Ajith, S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar

Abstract:

In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the starting transient flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a 3D SST k-ω turbulence model. This code solves standard k-omega turbulence equations with shear flow corrections using a coupled second order implicit unsteady formulation. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create pre-ignition thrust oscillations due to flow unsteadiness and recirculation. Under these conditions the convective flux to the surface of the propellant will be enhanced, which will create reattachment point far downstream of the transition region and it will create a situation for secondary ignition and formation of multiple-flame fronts. As a result the effective time required for the complete burning surface area to be ignited comes down drastically giving rise to a high pressurization rate (dp/dt) in the second phase of starting transient. This in effect could lead to starting thrust oscillations and eventually a hard start of the solid rocket motor. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations will be diminished rapidly and will reach the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the thrust oscillations and unexpected thrust spike often observed in solid rockets with non-uniform ports are presumably contributed due to the joint effects of the geometry dependent driving forces, transient burning and the chamber gas dynamics forces. We also concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or pressure/thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: ignition transient, solid rockets, starting transient, thrust transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
8 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, S. Vignesh, N. Vishnu, S. Vigneshwaran, M. Vishnu Anand, Dinesh Kumar Babu

Abstract:

The study of the primary flow velocity and the self impinging secondary jet flow mixing is important from both the fundamental research and the application point of view. Real industrial configurations are more complex than simple shear layers present in idealized numerical thrust-vectoring models due to the presence of combustion, swirl and confinement. Predicting the flow features of self impinging secondary jets in a supersonic primary flow is complex owing to the fact that there are a large number of parameters involved. Earlier studies have been highlighted several key features of self impinging jets, but an extensive characterization in terms of jet interaction between supersonic flow and self impinging secondary sonic jets is still an active research topic. In this paper numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional k-omega standard turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self impinging secondary flow sonic jets using non-reacting flows. Efforts have been taken for examining the flow features of TVC system with various secondary jets at different divergent locations and jet impinging angles with the same inlet jet pressure and mass flow ratio. The results from the parametric studies reveal that in addition to the primary to the secondary mass flow ratio the characteristics of the self impinging secondary jets having bearing on an efficient thrust vectoring. We concluded that the self impinging secondary jet nozzles are better than single jet nozzle with the same secondary mass flow rate owing to the fact fixing of the self impinging secondary jet nozzles with proper jet angle could facilitate better thrust vectoring for any supersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, supersonic to sonic jet interaction, TVC in aerospace vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
7 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: intermediate non-destructive testing, medium scale industries, process layout design

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
6 Diagnostic Investigation of Aircraft Performance at Different Winglet Cant Angles

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, M. Dinesh, V. Kenny Mark, B. Santhosh Kumar, R. Sree Radesh

Abstract:

Comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out to examine the best aerodynamic performance of subsonic aircraft at different winglet cant angles using a validated 3D k-ω SST model. In the parametric analytical studies, NACA series of airfoils are selected. Basic design of the winglet is selected from the literature and flow features of the entire wing including the winglet tip effects have been examined with different cant angles varying from 150 to 600 at different angles of attack up to 140. We have observed, among the cases considered in this study that a case with 150 cant angle the aerodynamics performance of the subsonic aircraft during takeoff was found better up to an angle of attack of 2.80 and further its performance got diminished at higher angles of attack. Analyses further revealed that increasing the winglet cant angle from 150 to 600 at higher angles of attack could negate the performance deterioration and additionally it could enhance the peak CL/CD on the order of 3.5%. The investigated concept of variable-cant-angle winglets appears to be a promising alternative for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft.

Keywords: drag reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, cant angle, flexible winglets

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
5 Design of a Controlled BHJ Solar Cell Using Modified Organic Vapor Spray Deposition Technique

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, V. Sathya Narayanan, F. Stephen Joe

Abstract:

A comprehensive review of the literature on photovoltaic cells has been carried out for exploring the better options for cost efficient technologies for future solar cell applications. Literature review reveals that the Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Polymer Solar cells offer special opportunities as renewable energy resources. It is evident from the previous studies that the device fabricated with TiOx layer shows better power conversion efficiency than that of the device without TiOx layer. In this paper, authors designed a controlled BHJ solar cell using a modified organic vapor spray deposition technique facilitated with a vertical-moving gun named as 'Stephen Joe Technique' for getting a desirable surface pattern over the substrate to improving its efficiency over the years for industrial applications. We comprehended that the efficient processing and the interface engineering of these solar cells could increase the efficiency up to 5-10 %.

Keywords: Solar Cell, photovoltaic cell, BHJ polymer solar cell, Stephen Joe technique

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4 The Conceptual Design Model of an Automated Supermarket

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, V. Sathya Narayanan, P. Sidharth

Abstract:

The success of any retail business is predisposed by its swift response and its knack in understanding the constraints and the requirements of customers. In this paper a conceptual design model of an automated customer-friendly supermarket has been proposed. In this model a 10-sided, space benefited, regular polygon shaped gravity shelves have been designed for goods storage and effective customer-specific algorithms have been built-in for quick automatic delivery of the randomly listed goods. The algorithm is developed with two main objectives, viz., delivery time and priority. For meeting these objectives the randomly listed items are reorganized according to the critical-path of the robotic arm specific to the identified shop and its layout and the items are categorized according to the demand, shape, size, similarity and nature of the product for an efficient pick-up, packing and delivery process. We conjectured that the proposed automated supermarket model reduces business operating costs with much customer satisfaction warranting a win-win situation.

Keywords: automated supermarket, electronic shopping, polygon-shaped rack, shortest path algorithm for shopping

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3 3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, J. Abdullah, R. Kanmaniraja, R. Freshipali, K. Niranjan, K. Balasubramani

Abstract:

The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, Chevron, acoustic level, shape optimization of Chevron nozzles, jet noise suppression

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2 Studies on Race Car Aerodynamics at Wing in Ground Effect

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, K. E. Shanjay, H. Sujith Kumar, N. A. Abhilash, D. Aswin Ram

Abstract:

Numerical studies on race car aerodynamics at wing in ground effect have been carried out using a steady 3d, double precision, pressure-based, and standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Through various parametric analytical studies we have observed that at a particular speed and ground clearance of the wings a favorable negative lift was found high at a particular angle of attack for all the physical models considered in this paper. The fact is that if the ground clearance height to chord length (h/c) is too small, the developing boundary layers from either side (the ground and the lower surface of the wing) can interact, leading to an altered variation of the aerodynamic characteristics at wing in ground effect. Therefore a suitable ground clearance must be predicted throughout the racing for a better performance of the race car, which obviously depends upon the coupled effects of the topography, wing orientation with respect to the ground, the incoming flow features and/or the race car speed. We have concluded that for the design of high performance and high speed race cars the adjustable wings capable to alter the ground clearance and the angles of attack is the best design option for any race car for racing safely with variable speeds.

Keywords: external aerodynamics, external flow choking, race car aerodynamics, wing in ground effect

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1 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath

Abstract:

The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift, roadable airplane

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