Amela Ajanovic

Publications

2 Recent Developments in Electric Vehicles for Passenger Car Transport

Authors: Amela Ajanovic

Abstract:

Electric vehicles are considered as technology which can significantly reduce the problems related to road transport such as increasing GHG emissions, air pollutions and energy import dependency. The core objective of this paper is to analyze the current energetic, ecological and economic characteristics of different types of electric vehicles. The major conclusions of this analysis are: The high investments cost are the major barrier for broad market breakthrough of battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. For battery electric vehicles also the limited driving range states a key obstacle. The analyzed hybrids could in principle serve as a bridging technology. However, due to their tank-to-wheel emissions they cannot state a proper solution for urban areas. Finally, the most important perception is that also battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are environmentally benign solution if the primary fuel source is renewable.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Emissions, costs, fuel intensity

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1 Promoting Electric Vehicles for Sustainable Urban Transport: How to Do It This Time Right

Authors: Amela Ajanovic, Reinhard Haas

Abstract:

In recent years various types of electric vehicles has gained again increasing attention as an environmentally benign technology in transport. Especially for urban areas with high local pollution this Zero-emission technology (at the point of use) is considered to provide proper solutions. Yet, the bad economics and the limited driving ranges are still major barriers for a broader market penetration of battery electric vehicles (BEV) and of fuel cell vehicles (FCV). The major result of our analyses is that the most important precondition for a further dissemination of BEV in urban areas are emission-free zones. This is an instrument which allows the promotion of BEV without providing excessive subsidies. In addition, it is important to note that the full benefits of EV can only be harvested if the electricity used is produced from renewable energy sources. That is to say, it has to be ensured that the use of BEV in urban areas is clearly linked to a green electricity purchase model. And moreover, the introduction of a CO2- emission-based tax system would support this requirement.

Keywords: Economics, History, Electric Vehicles, Policies

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Abstracts

2 Impact of Electric Vehicles on Energy Consumption and Environment

Authors: Amela Ajanovic, Reinhard Haas

Abstract:

Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as an important means to cope with current environmental problems in transport. However, their high capital costs and limited driving ranges state major barriers to a broader market penetration. The core objective of this paper is to investigate the future market prospects of various types of EVs from an economic and ecological point of view. Our method of approach is based on the calculation of total cost of ownership of EVs in comparison to conventional cars and a life-cycle approach to assess the environmental benignity. The most crucial parameters in this context are km driven per year, depreciation time of the car and interest rate. The analysis of future prospects it is based on technological learning regarding investment costs of batteries. The major results are the major disadvantages of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are the high capital costs, mainly due to the battery, and a low driving range in comparison to conventional vehicles. These problems could be reduced with plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and range extenders (REXs). However, these technologies have lower CO₂ emissions in the whole energy supply chain than conventional vehicles, but unlike BEV they are not zero-emission vehicles at the point of use. The number of km driven has a higher impact on total mobility costs than the learning rate. Hence, the use of EVs as taxis and in car-sharing leads to the best economic performance. The most popular EVs are currently full hybrid EVs. They have only slightly higher costs and similar operating ranges as conventional vehicles. But since they are dependent on fossil fuels, they can only be seen as energy efficiency measure. However, they can serve as a bridging technology, as long as BEVs and fuel cell vehicle do not gain high popularity, and together with PHEVs and REX contribute to faster technological learning and reduction in battery costs. Regarding the promotion of EVs, the best results could be reached with a combination of monetary and non-monetary incentives, as in Norway for example. The major conclusion is that to harvest the full environmental benefits of EVs a very important aspect is the introduction of CO₂-based fuel taxes. This should ensure that the electricity for EVs is generated from renewable energy sources; otherwise, total CO₂ emissions are likely higher than those of conventional cars.

Keywords: Mobility, Sustainability, Policy, costs

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1 On the Market Prospects of Long-Term Electricity Storages

Authors: Amela Ajanovic, Reinhard Haas

Abstract:

In recent years especially electricity generation from intermittent sources like wind and solar has increased remarkably. To balance electricity supply over time calls for storages has been launched. Because intermittency also exists over longer periods – months, years, especially the need for long-term electricity storages is discussed. The major conclusions of our analysis are: (i) Despite many calls for a prophylactic construction of new storage capacities with respect to all centralized long-term storage technologies the future perspectives will be much less promising than currently indicated in several papers and discussions; (ii) new long term hydro storages will not become economically attractive in general in the next decades; however, daily storages will remain the cheapest option and the most likely to be competitive; (iii) For PtG-technologies it will also become very hard to compete in the electricity markets despite a high technological learning potential. Yet, for hydrogen and methane there are prospects for use in the transport sector.

Keywords: Economics, Power-to-Gas, electricity markets, storages, hydro pump storages

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