P. Pal

Publications

2 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: P. Pal, V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao

Abstract:

The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: MEMS, micromachining, Silicon, KOH, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching

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1 The Study of the Interaction between Catanionic Surface Micelle SDS-CTAB and Insulin at Air/Water Interface

Authors: B. Tah, P. Pal, M. Mahato, R. Sarkar, G. B. Talapatra

Abstract:

Herein, we report the different types of surface morphology due to the interaction between the pure protein Insulin (INS) and catanionic surfactant mixture of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) at air/water interface obtained by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. We characterized the aggregations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in LB films. We found that the INS adsorption increased in presence of catanionic surfactant at air/water interface. The presence of small amount of surfactant induces two-stage growth kinetics due to the pure protein absorption and protein-catanionic surface micelle interaction. The protein remains in native state in presence of small amount of surfactant mixture. Smaller amount of surfactant mixture with INS is producing surface micelle type structure. This may be considered for drug delivery system. On the other hand, INS becomes unfolded and fibrillated in presence of higher amount of surfactant mixture. In both the cases, the protein was successfully immobilized on a glass substrate by the LB technique. These results may find applications in the fundamental science of the physical chemistry of surfactant systems, as well as in the preparation of drug-delivery system.

Keywords: insulin, Air/water interface, Catanionic micelle, Langmuir-Blodgett film

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Abstracts

1 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: P. Pal, V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao

Abstract:

The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: MEMS, micromachining, Silicon, KOH, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching

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