O. S. Olonitola

Publications

1 Effect of Zidovudine on Hematological and Virologic Parameters among Female Sex Workers Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in North – Western Nigeria

Authors: N. M. Sani, E. D. Jatau, O. S. Olonitola, M. Y. Gwarzo, P. Moodley, N. S. Mujahid

Abstract:

Hemoglobin (HB) indicates anemia level and by extension may reflect the nutritional level and perhaps the immunity of an individual. Some antiretroviral drugs like Zidovudine are known to cause anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A cross sectional study using demographic data and blood specimen from 218 female commercial sex workers attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics was conducted between December, 2009 and July, 2011 to assess the effect of zidovudine on hematologic, and RNA viral load of female sex workers receiving antiretroviral treatment in north western Nigeria. Anemia is a common and serious complication of both HIV infection and its treatment. In the setting of HIV infection, anemia has been associated with decreased quality of life, functional status, and survival. Antiretroviral therapy, particularly the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), has been associated with a decrease in the incidence and severity of anemia in HIV-infected patients who have received a HAART regimen for at least 1 year. In this study, result has shown that of the 218 patients, 26 with hemoglobin count between 5.1 – 10g/dl were observed to have the highest viral load count of 300,000 – 350,000copies/ml. It was also observed that most patients (190) with HB of 10.1 – 15.0g/dl had viral load count of 200,000 – 250,000 copies /ml. An inverse relationship therefore exists i.e. the lower the hemoglobin level, the higher the viral load count even though the test statistics did not show any significance between the two (P = 0.206). This shows that multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that anemia was associated with a CD4 + cell count below 50/μL, female sex workers with a viral load above 100,000 copies/mL, who use zidovudine. Severe anemia was less prevalent in this study population than in historical comparators; however, mild to moderate anemia rates remain high. The study therefore recommends that hematological and virologic parameters be monitored closely in patients receiving first line ART regimen.

Keywords: Anemia, zidovudine, hemoglobin, female sex worker

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Abstracts

2 Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Butanol Fraction of Terminalia avicennioides Leaf in Swiss Albino Rats

Authors: O. S. Olonitola, Fatima Mohammed Musa, J. B. Ameh, S. A. Ado

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of extracts of Terminalia avicennioides leaf and the antidiarrhoeal effect of n-butanol fraction of the leaf extract in Swiss albino rats infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Ethanol crude extract of Terminalia avicennioides leaf was dissolved in 1.5 liters of sterile distilled water. The extract solution was partitioned with 250 ml each of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol solvents (1:1v/v) to obtain soluble fractions from the extract. The leaf extract and its fractions were screened for the presence of phytocompounds using standard analytical methods. The antidirrhoeal activity of n-butanol fraction was evaluated in Swiss albino rats using standard methods. The results of phytochemical screening of extract of Terminalia avicennioides leaf and its fractions, revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpens, glycosides and phenols. The results of in vivo activity showed that 60 % of each group of rats infected with 2.0 x 108 cfu/ml viable cells of S. Typhimurium and 2.0 x109 cfu/ml viable cells of E. coli manifested the symptoms of diarrhoea, 72 hours after the rats were challenged with bacteria. Other symptoms observed among the infected animals included, loss of appetite, loss of weight, general body weakness and 40 % mortality in S. Typhimurium infected non treated group of rats. Similarly, 60 %, and 20 % mortality was observed among E. coli infected none treated and E. coli infected antibiotic (metronidazole) treated groups of rats respectively. However, there was a reduction in the number of infected rats defecating watery stools over time among all the infected rats that were treated with n-butanol fraction of the leaf extract and mortality was also not observed in the group, indicating high efficacy of n-butanol fraction of T. avicennioides leaf. The results also indicated that n-butanol can be used as alternative source of antidiarrhoeal agent in the treatment of diarrhoea caused by Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. In the light of this, there is a need for further research on the mechanism of action of the candidate fraction of T. avicennioides leaf which could be responsible for the observed in vivo antibacterial activity.

Keywords: phytochemical constituents, antidirrhoeal effect, swiss albino rats, terminalia avicennioides

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1 Effect of Zidovudine on Hematological and Virologic Parameters among Female Sex Workers Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in North-Western Nigeria

Authors: N. M. Sani, E. D. Jatau, O. S. Olonitola, M. Y. Gwarzo, P. Moodley, N. S. Mujahid

Abstract:

Haemoglobin (HB) indicates anaemia level and by extension may reflect the nutritional level and perhaps the immunity of an individual. Some antiretroviral drugs like zidovudine are known to cause anaemia in People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A cross-sectional study using demographic data and blood specimen from 218 female commercial sex workers attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics was conducted between December 2009 and July 2011 to assess the effect of zidovudine on haematologic and RNA viral load of female sex workers receiving antiretroviral treatment in north-western Nigeria. Anaemia is a common and serious complication of both HIV infection and its treatment. In the setting of HIV infection, anaemia has been associated with decreased quality of life, functional status, and survival. Antiretroviral therapy, particularly the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), has been associated with a decrease in the incidence and severity of anaemia in HIV-infected patients who have received a HAART regimen for at least 1 year. In this study, result has shown that out of 218 patients, 26 with haemoglobin count between 5.1–10 g/dl were observed to have the highest viral load count of 300,000–350,000 copies/ml. It was also observed that most patients (190) with HB of 10.1–15.0 g/dl had viral load count of 200,000–250,000 copies/ml. An inverse relationship therefore exists, i.e. the lower the haemoglobin level, the higher the viral load count, even though the test statistics did not show any significance between the two (P=0.206). This shows that multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that anaemia was associated with a CD4+ cell count below 50/µL in female sex workers with a viral load above 100,000 copies/mL who use zidovudine. Severe anaemia was less prevalent in this study population than in historical comparators; however, mild to moderate anaemia rates remain high. The study, therefore, recommends that hematological and virologic parameters be monitored closely in patients receiving first line ART regimen.

Keywords: zidovudine, haemoglobin, anaemia, female sex worker

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