Rastin Afkhami

Abstracts

4 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpou, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, cytotoxic, Persian Gulf, hard corals

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3 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Oil Pollution, Persian Gulf, flatfishes

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2 The Survey of Sea Cucumber Fisheries in QESHM Island Coasts: Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Sea cucumbers are aquatic animals with a wide variety useful for human health. Sea cucumbers are from the aquatic creatures that have many important and useful properties known for human health. Increasing demand for beche-de-mer along with steady price increases have led to worldwide intensification of sea cucumber harvesting. The rearing of sea cucumber with shrimp controls the environmental pollution results from extra enriched nutritious built on the pond bottom. These animals eat detritus and with devouring of organic materials on the surface, not only do they make the environment clean, but also they cause the fast growth of shrimp and themselves. Holothuria scabra is a main species for producing of Beche-de-mer and more exploited in tropical region of the world. The wall of body is used in the process of beche-de-mer production that forms the 56% of the whole body. Holothuria scabra (sandfish) is an aspidochirote holothurian widely distributed in coastal regions throughout the Indo-Pacific region. H. scabra is often found on inner reef flats and near estuaries, half buried in the silt sand during the day and emerging at night to feed. In this study upon to information from local fishermen's in Qeshm island, we Providing some data about fishing methods, processing and distribution in the Qeshm island coastline. Comparative study of fishing status with another part of the world determined that the status of sea cucumber stocks in Qeshm Island is suitable. For preventing of over exploited of sandy sea cucumber capture prohibition should be continue. In this study, 7 explotide sites are recognized, the target size for fishermen's was more than 20 cm and sandy cucumber was the target species in Qeshm Island. In this area the fishing operation was only done by scuba diving and has been done only by men's. Although in another countries women's have an important role in sea cucumber fishing operation. In the coast around Qeshm island it is found in Hmoon, Tolla, kovei, Ramchah, Messen, and Hengam. The maximum length and weight was recorded 35 cm and 1080 gr, respectively.

Keywords: sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, fishing status, Qeshm Island

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1 A Study on Effect of Almahdi Aluminium Factory of Bandar Abbas on Environment Status of the Region with an Emphasis on Measuring of Some Scarce Metals Existing in the Air (Atmosphere)

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Maryam Malekpour, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Today, industry is one of the indices of growth and development of countries and is a suitable applicable criterion to compare the countries. Bandar Abbas has a high industrial centralization in term of geographical redundancy of industries in comparison with other rural and urban places of Hormozgan province. Most important and major industries of the province are located in Bandar abbas eighth refinery, power plant, zinc melting company, Almahdi Aluminium, Hormozgan steel, south steel, which are the most important of these industries. So, it is necessary to study pollution from these industries and their destructive effects on environment of region. In respect of these things, general purpose of this research is codling and presenting managing solution of Almahdi Aluminium factory in them of measuring of air (atmosphere) parameters. For gaining this purpose it is necessary to determine measure of heavy metals suspension in the air (atmosphere) in the neighborhood of industries and also in residential regions close to them as partial purposes. So, for achieving the purposes above, operation of sampling from the air in two hot and cold seasons of the year (2010-2011) was performed, after field reviews to recognize the sources of effluence and to choose place of sampling stations. Sampling and preparation way to read was based on EPA and NIOSH. Also, decreasing process was included Fe>Al>Cd>Pb>Ni respectively, in term of results gaining from sampling of ingredients existing in the air (atmosphere). Also Ni and Fe elements in samples of air were higher than permissive measure in both of cold and hot season. Average of these two metals was 34% and 33% in cold season and 44% and 34% micrograms/m3 in hot season. Finally, suitable managing solutions to improve existing situation is presented in term for all results.

Keywords: Atmosphere, Bandar Abbas, Almahdi aluminium factory, scarce metals

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