Elza I. Ida

Abstracts

5 Broiler Chickens Meat Qualities and Death on Arrival (DOA) In-Transit in Brazilian Tropical Conditions

Authors: Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares, Rafael H. Carvalho, Arlan S. Freitas, Leila M. Carvalho, Arnoud Neto, Marta S. Madruga

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic profile of broiler transport trucks and holding time (340) min under commercial conditions over the breast meat quality and DOA (Dead On Arrival) in a tropical Brazilian regions as the NorthEast. In this particular region routinely the season is divided into dry and wet seasons. Three loads of 4,100 forty seven days old broiler were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse in a distance of 273 km (320 min), morning periods of August, September and October 2015 rainy days. Meat qualities were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat. The percentage of DOA per loaded truck was determined by counting the dead broiler during the hanging step at the slaughtering plant. Results showed the occurrence of 26.30% of PSE and 2.49% of DFD and 0.45% of DOA. By having PSE- and DFD- meat means that the birds were under thermal and cold stress leading as consequence to a relative high DOA index.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, PSE, DFD, microclimatic profile

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4 Further Evidence for the Existence of Broiler Chicken PFN (Pale, Firm and Non-Exudative Meat) and PSE (Pale, Soft and Exudative) in Brazilian Commercial Flocks

Authors: Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Leila M. Carvalho, Marta S. Madruga, Maria Erica S. Oliveira, Arnoud C. Neto

Abstract:

The quality of broiler breast meat is changing as a result of the continuing emphasis on genetic selection for a more efficient meat production. Breast meat has been classified as PSE (pale, soft, exudative), DFD (dark, firm, dry) and normal color meat, and recently a third group has emerged: the so-called PFN (pale, firm, non-exudative) meat. This classification was based on pH, color and functional properties. The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of PFN and PSE meat by biochemical characterization and functional properties. Twenty four hours of refrigerated fillet, Pectoralis major, m. samples (n= 838) were taken from Cobb flocks 42-48 days old, obtained in Northeastern Brazil tropical region, the Northeastern, considered to have only dry and wet seasons. Color (L*), pH, water holding capacity (WHC), values were evaluated and compared with PSE group samples. These samples were classified as Normal (465.8), PSE meat (L*≥53; pH<5.8) and PFN (L*≥53; pH>5.8). The occurrence of control meat, PSE and PFN was 69.09%, 11.10% and 19.81%, respectively. Samples from PFN presented 4.0-5.0% higher WHC in relation to PSE meat and similar to control group. These results are explained by the fact that PSE meat syndrome occurs because of higher protein denaturation as the consequence of a simultaneous lower pH values under warm carcass sooner after slaughtering impairing the myofibril proteins functional properties. Conversely, PFN samples follow normal glycolysis rate maintaining the normal proteins activities. In conclusion, the results reported herein confirm the existence of this emerging broiler meat group with similar properties as control group and it should be considered as normal breast meat group.

Keywords: PSE, broiler breast meat, funcional properties, PFN

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3 Meat Qualities and Death on Arrival (DOA) of Broiler Chickens Transported in a Brazilian Tropical Conditions

Authors: Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares, Arlan S. Freitas, Leila M. Carvalho, Arnoud Neto, Marta S. Madruga

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic profile of broiler transport trucks under commercial conditions over the breast meat quality and DOA (Death On Arrival) in a tropical Brazilian regions as the North East where routinely the season is divided into dry and wet seasons. The temperature remains fairly constant and obviously the relative humidity changes accordingly. Three loads of 4,100 forty seven days old broiler were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse in a distance of 4.3 km, morning period of October 2015 rainy days. The profile of the environmental variables inside the container truck throughout the journey was obtained by the installation of thermo anemometers in 6 different locations by monitoring the heat index (HI), air velocity (AV), temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH). Meat qualities were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and DFD (dark, firm dry) meat. The percentage of birds DOA per loaded truck was determined by counting the dead broiler during the hanging step at the slaughtering plant. The analysis of variance was performed using statistical software (Statistica 8 for windows, Statsoft 2007, Tulsa, OK, USA). The Tukey significance test (P<0.05) was applied to compare means from microenvironmental data, PSE, DFD and DOA. Fillet samples were collected at 24h post mortem for pH e color (L*, a* e b*) determination through the CIELAB system. Results showed the occurrence of 2.98% of PSE and 0.66% de DFD and only 0.016% of DOA and overall the most uncomfortable container location was at the truck frontal inferior presenting 6.25% of PSE. DFD of 2.0% were obtained from birds located at central and inferior rear locations. These values were unexpected in comparison to other results obtained in our laboratories in previous experiments carried out within the country south state. The results reported herein were lower in every aspect. Reasonable explanation would be the shorter distance, wet conditions throughout around 15-20 min journeys and lower T and RH values as observed in samples taken from the rear location as higher DFD values were obtained. These facts mean the animals were not under heat stressful condition but in fact under cold stress conditions as the result of DFD suggested in association to the lower number of DOA.

Keywords: Cold Stress, PSE, DFD, microclimatic profile

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2 Pale, Soft, Exudative (PSE) Turkey Meat in a Brazilian Commercial Processing Plant

Authors: Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares, Danielle C. B. Honorato, Rafael H. Carvalho, Ana Paula F. R. L. Bracarense, Paulo D. Guarnieri

Abstract:

Over the past decade, the Brazilian production of turkey meat increased by more than 50%, indicating that the turkey meat is considered a great potential for the Brazilian economy contributing to the growth of agribusiness at the marketing international scenario. However, significant color changes may occur during its processing leading to the pale, soft and exudative (PSE) appearance on the surface of breast meat due to the low water holding capacity (WHC). Changes in PSE meat functional properties occur due to the myofibrils proteins denaturation caused by a rapid postmortem glycolysis resulting in a rapid pH decline while the carcass temperature is still warm. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical, chemical and histological characteristics of PSE turkey meat obtained from a Brazilian commercial processing plant. The turkey breasts samples were collected (n=64) at the processing line and classified as PSE at L* ≥ 53 value. The pH was also analyzed after L* measurement. In sequence, PSE meat samples were evaluated for WHC, cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF), myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), protein denaturation (PD) and histological evaluation. The abnormal color samples presented lower pH values, 16% lower fiber diameter, 11% lower SF and 2% lower WHC than those classified as normal. The CL, PD and MFI were, respectively, 9%, 18% and 4% higher in PSE samples. The Pearson correlation between the L* values and CL, PD and MFI was positive, while that SF and pH values presented negative correlation. Under light microscopy, a shrinking of PSE muscle cell diameter was approximately 16% shorter in relation to normal samples and an extracellular enlargement of endomysium and perimysium sheaths as the consequence of higher water contents lost as observed previously by lower WHC values. Thus, the results showed that PSE turkey breast meat presented significant changes in their physical, chemical and histological characteristics that may impair its functional properties.

Keywords: Meat Quality, functional properties, histological evaluation, PSE

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1 Occurrence of Broiler Chicken Breast White Striping Meat in Brazilian Commercial Plant

Authors: Talita Kato, Moises Grespan, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares

Abstract:

White Striping (WS) is becoming a concern for the poultry industry, as it affects the look of breast broiler chicken meat leading it to rejection by the consumers. It is characterized by the appearance of varying degrees of white striations on the Pectoralis major muscle surface following the direction of the muscle fiber. The etiology of this myopathy is still unknown, however it is suggested to be associated with increased weight gain rate and age of the bird, attributing the phenomenon to the genetically bird’s selection for efficiently higher meat production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Pectoralis major WS in a commercial plant in southern Brazil and its chemical characterization. The breast meat samples (n=660) from birds of 47 days of age, were classified as: Normal NG (no apparent white striations), Moderate MG (when the fillets present thin lines <1 mm) and Severe SG (white striations present ˃1 mm thick covering a large part of the fillet surface). Thirty samples (n = 10 for each level of severity) were analyzed for pH, color (L*, a*, b*), proximate chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash and lipids contents) and hydroxyproline in order to determine the collagen content. The results revealed the occurrence for NG group was 16.97%, 51.67% for MG group and 31.36% for SG group. Although the total protein content did not differ significantly, the collagen index was 42% higher in favor to SG in relation to NG. Also the lipid fraction was 27% higher for SG group. The NG presented the lowest values of the parameters L* and a* (P ≤ 0.05), as there was no white striations on its surface and highest b* value in SG, because of the maximum lipid contents. These results indicate there was a contribution of the SG muscle cells to oversynthesize connective tissue components on the muscle fascia. In conclusion, this study revealed a high incidence of White Striping on broiler commercial line in Brazil thus, there is a need to identify the causes of this abnormality in order to diminish or to eliminate it.

Keywords: proximate composition, collagen content, commercial line, pectoralis major muscle

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