Kuladip Jana

Abstracts

3 Gastro-Protective Actions of Melatonin and Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract Combination in Piroxicam Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Kuladip Jana, Syed Benazir Firdaus, Debosree Ghosh, Aindrila Chattyopadhyay, Debasish Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Gastro-toxic effect of piroxicam, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has restricted its use in arthritis and similar diseases. The present study aims to find if a combination of melatonin and Murraya koenigii leaf extract therapy can protect against piroxicam induced ulcerative damage in rats. For this study, rats were divided into four groups namely control group where rats were orally administered distilled water, only combination treated group, piroxicam treated group and combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Each group of rats consisted of six animals. Melatonin at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight and antioxidant rich Murraya koenigii leaf extract at a dose of 50 mg /kg body weight were successively administered at 30 minutes interval one hour before oral administration of piroxicam at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. The rats of the animal group which was only combination treated were administered both the drugs respectively without piroxicam treatment whereas the piroxicam treated animal group was administered only piroxicam at 30mg/kg body weight without any pre-treatment with the combination. Macroscopic examination along with histo-pathological study of gastric tissue using haemotoxylin-eosin staining and alcian blue dye staining showed protection of the gastric mucosa in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Determination of adherent mucus content biochemically and collagen content through Image J analysis of picro-sirius stained sections of rat gastric tissue also revealed protective effects of the combination in piroxicam mediated toxicity. Gelatinolytic activity of piroxicam was significantly reduced by pre-administration of the drugs which was well exhibited by the gelatin zymography study of the rat gastric tissue. Mean ulcer index determined from macroscopic study of rat stomach reduced to a minimum (0±0.00; Mean ± Standard error of mean and number of animals in the group=6) indicating the absence of ulcer spots on pre-treatment of rats with the combination. Gastro-friendly prostaglandin (PGE2) which otherwise gets depleted on piroxicam treatment was also well protected when the combination was pre-administered in the rats prior to piroxicam treatment. The requirement of the individual drugs in low doses in this combinatorial therapeutic approach will possibly minimize the cost of therapy as well as it will eliminate the possibility of any pro-oxidant side effects on the use of high doses of antioxidants. Beneficial activity of this combination therapy in the rat model raises the possibility that similar protective actions might be also observed if it is adopted by patients consuming NSAIDs like piroxicam. However, the introduction of any such therapeutic approach is subject to future studies in human.

Keywords: Melatonin, piroxicam, gastro-protective action, Murraya koenigii leaf extract

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2 Molecular Signaling Involved in the 'Benzo(a)Pyrene' Induced Germ Cell DNA Damage and Apoptosis: Possible Protection by Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist and Anti-Tumor Agent

Authors: Kuladip Jana

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased ROS, altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38MAPK, cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, up-regulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of PARP and down-regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like StAR, cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β HSD, 17β HSD showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis.The possible protective role of naturally occurring phytochemicals against B(a)P induced testicular toxicity needs immediate consideration. Curcumin and resveratrol separately were found to protect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis, and their combinatorial effect was more significant. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted their synergistic protective effect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3,8,9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, Apaf1.Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment thus prevented B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. B(a)P induced testicular ROS generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 production. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ cells from B(a)P induced apoptosis.

Keywords: apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, Resveratrol, germ cell, benzo(a)pyrene

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1 Resveratrol Ameliorates Benzo(a)Pyrene Induced Testicular Dysfunction and Apoptosis: Involvement of p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS Signaling

Authors: Kuladip Jana, Bhaswati Banerjee, Parimal C. Sen

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems along with carcinogenesis in skin, prostate, ovary, lung and mammary glands. Our study was focused on elucidating the molecular mechanism of B(a)P induced male reproductive toxicity and its prevention with phytochemical like resveratrol. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of Wistar rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, upregulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and down regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β HSD), 17β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (17β HSD) showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis. Next we investigated the role of resveratrol on B(a)P induced male reproductive toxicity. Our study highlighted that resveratrol co-treatment with B(a)P maintained testicular redox potential, increased serum testosterone level and prevented steroidogenic dysfunction with enhanced expression of major testicular steroidogenic proteins (CYPIIA1, StAR, 3β HSD,17β HSD) relative to treatment with B(a)P only. Resveratrol suppressed B(a)P-induced testicular activation of p38 MAPK, ATF2, iNOS and ROS production; cytosolic translocation of Cytochome c and Caspase 3 activation thereby prevented oxidative stress of testis and inhibited apoptosis. Resveratrol co-treatment also decreased B(a)P-induced AhR protein level, its nuclear translocation and subsequent CYP1A1 promoter activation, thereby decreased protein and mRNA levels of testicular cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and prevented BPDE-DNA adduct formation. Our findings cumulatively suggest that resveratrol prevents activation of B(a)P by modulating the transcriptional regulation of CYP1A1 and acting as an antioxidant thus prevents B(a)P-induced oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis.

Keywords: apoptosis, Resveratrol, testis, benzo(a)pyrene, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS

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