Patricia Oliveira-Silva

Abstracts

3 A Systematic Review Emotion Regulation through Music in Children, Adults, and Elderly

Authors: Antonio Oliveira, Patricia Oliveira-Silva, Fabiana Ribeiro, Ana Moreno

Abstract:

Music is present in our daily lives, and to our knowledge music is often used to change the emotions in the listeners. For this reason, the objective of this study was to explore and synthesize results examining the use and effects of music on emotion regulation in children, adults, and elderly, and clarify if the music is effective across ages to promote emotion regulation. A literature search was conducted using ISI Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Scopus, inclusion criteria comprised children, adolescents, young, and old adults, including health population. Articles applying musical intervention, specifically musical listening, and assessing the emotion regulation directly through reports or neurophysiological measures were included in this review. Results showed age differences in the function of musical listening; initially, adolescents revealed age increments in emotional listening compared to children, and young adults in comparison to older adults, in which the first use music aiming to emotion regulation and social connection, while older adults also utilize music as emotion regulation searching for personal growth. Moreover, some of the studies showed that personal characteristics also would determine the efficiency of the emotion regulation strategy. In conclusion, it was observed that music could beneficiate all ages investigated, however, this review detected a necessity to develop adequate paradigms to explore the use of music for emotion regulation.

Keywords: Music, Regulation, emotion, musical listening

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2 Characterization of the Music Admission Requirements and Evaluation of the Relationship among Motivation and Performance Achievement

Authors: Antonio M. Oliveira, Patricia Oliveira-Silva, Jose Matias Alves, Gary McPherson

Abstract:

The music teaching is oriented towards offering formal music training. Due to its specificities, this vocational program starts at a very young age. Although provided by the State, the offer is limited to 6 schools throughout the country, which means that the vacancies for prospective students are very limited every year. It is therefore crucial that these vacancies be taken by especially motivated children grown within households that offer the ideal setting for success. Some of the instruments used to evaluate musical performance are highly sensitive to specific previous training, what represents a severe validity problem for testing children who have had restricted opportunities for formal training. Moreover, these practices may be unfair because, for instance, they may not reflect the candidates’ music aptitudes. Based on what constitutes a prerequisite for making an excellent music student, researchers in this field have long argued that motivation, task commitment, and parents’ support are as important as ability. Thus, the aim of this study is: (1) to prepare an inventory of admission requirements in Australia, Portugal and Ireland; (2) to examine whether the candidates to music conservatories and parents’ level of motivation, assessed at three evaluation points (i.e., admission, at the end of the first year, and at the end of the second year), correlates positively with the candidates’ progress in learning a musical instrument (i.e., whether motivation at the admission may predict student musicianship); (3) an adaptation of an existing instrument to assess the motivation (i.e., to adapt the items to the music setting, focusing on the motivation for playing a musical instrument). The inclusion criteria are: only children registered in the administrative services to be evaluated for entrance to the conservatory will be accepted for this study. The expected number of participants is fifty (5-6 years old) in all the three frequency schemes: integrated, articulated and supplementary. Revisiting musical admission procedures is of particular importance and relevance to musical education because this debate may bring guidance and assistance about the needed improvement to make the process of admission fairer and more transparent.

Keywords: student’s motivation, music learning, music admission requirements, parent’s motivation

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1 Assessment of Music Performance Anxiety in Portuguese Children and Adolescents

Authors: Ana Pinheiro, Patricia Oliveira-Silva, Pedro Dias, Lurdes Verissimo, Maria Joao Baptista, Sofia Serra, Daniela Coimbra

Abstract:

To achieve a high standard in performance, a musician must be well in all aspects of health (physical, mental and social). Anxiety in performance is related to the high level of coordination and skill needed in performance, as well as to the public evaluation of the performer. It affects some key elements of performance, such as concentration, memory, motor coordination, and relaxation. This work presents two studies focused on the adaptation and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (MPAI-A) in young Portuguese music students. The first study was conducted with a sample of 161 adolescent music students, who responded to the Portuguese version of this instrument, and to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC-c2). Validity and reliability were examined, and this measure revealed robust psychometric properties in this sample. The second study aimed to adapt the MPAI to a younger population (one hundred 8-10 years-old music students). Again, the MPAI and the STAIC c-2 were used in this study. Exploratory factor analysis, correlations, and internal consistency were used to evaluate the final children version of the instrument (MPAI-C), presenting a different factor structure compared to the adolescent version (10 items organized in 2 factors) and high levels of reliability and convergent validity.

Keywords: Music Performance, Anxiety, Assessment, Children and Adolescents

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