Ramandeep Kaur


6 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)

Authors: Kamaljit Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev


Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Breads, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scores

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5 Use of Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Aqueous and Juice Samples

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Ashok Kumar Malik


Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE) combined with Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) has been developed for the determination of nineteen organochlorine pesticides in various aqueous samples. The method consolidates the features of sol-gel derived microextraction sorbents with rich surface chemistry of cellulose fabric substrate which could directly extract sample from complex sample matrices and incredibly improve the operation with decreased pretreatment time. Some vital parameters such as kind and volume of extraction solvent and extraction time were examinedand optimized. Calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 0.5-500 ng/mL. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.033 ng/mL to 0.136 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for extraction of 10 ng/mL 0f OCPs were less than 10%. The developed method has been applied for the quantification of these compounds in aqueous and fruit juice samples. The results obtained proved the present method to be rapid and feasible for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

Keywords: organochlorine pesticides, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, fabric phase sorptive extraction, sample pretreatment

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4 Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Makula Ajitha


Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, transdermal, fluvastatin, nanoemulsion gel

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3 Wavelet Coefficients Based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) Based Filtering for Remotely Sensed Images

Authors: Kamaljit Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur


In recent years, the technology of the remote sensing is growing rapidly. Image enhancement is one of most commonly used of image processing operations. Noise reduction plays very important role in digital image processing and various technologies have been located ahead to reduce the noise of the remote sensing images. The noise reduction using wavelet coefficients based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) has less consequences on the edges than available methods but this is not as establish in edge preservation techniques. So in this paper we provide a new technique minimum patch based noise reduction OMP which reduce the noise from an image and used edge preservation patch which preserve the edges of the image and presents the superior results than existing OMP technique. Experimental results show that the proposed minimum patch approach outperforms over existing techniques.

Keywords: image denoising, minimum patch, OMP, WCOMP

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2 A Study of Closed Sets and Maps with Ideals

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Asha Gupta


The purpose of this paper is to study a class of closed sets, called generalized pre-closed sets with respect to an ideal (briefly Igp-closed sets), which is an extension of generalized pre-closed sets in general topology. Then, by using these sets, the concepts of Igp- compact spaces along with some classes of maps like continuous and closed maps via ideals have been introduced and analogues of some known results for compact spaces, continuous maps and closed maps in general topology have been obtained.

Keywords: ideal, gp-closed sets, gp-closed maps, gp-continuous maps

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1 An Extraction of Cancer Region from MR Images Using Fuzzy Clustering Means and Morphological Operations

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh Bhathal


Cancer diagnosis is very difficult task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is used to produce image of any part of the body and provides an efficient way for diagnosis of cancer or tumor. In existing method, fuzzy clustering mean (FCM) is used for the diagnosis of the tumor. In the proposed method FCM is used to diagnose the cancer of the foot. FCM finds the centroids of the clusters of the foot cancer obtained from MRI images. FCM thresholding result shows the extract region of the cancer. Morphological operations are applied to get extracted region of cancer.

Keywords: Segmentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fuzzy C mean clustering, morphological operations

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