Muthulisi Siwela

Abstracts

3 Nutritional Composition of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Maize Based Beverage with Potential to Alleviate Vitamin A Deficiency

Authors: Muthulisi Siwela, Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou

Abstract:

Amahewu, a lactic acid fermented non-alcoholic maize based beverage is widely consumed in Southern Africa. It is traditionally made with white maize which is deficient in vitamin A. Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed for use as a complementary strategy to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. In this study the nutritional composition and protein digestibility of amahewu produced using provitamin A-biofortified maize was determined. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was processed by fermenting cooked maize porridge using malted provitamin A-biofortified maize, wheat bran and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted maize or wheat bran. The total provitamin A content in amahewu products ranged from 3.3-3.8 μg/g (DW). The % retention of total provitamin A ranged from 79 %- 90 % μg/g (DW). The lowest % retention was observed in products fermented with the addition of starter culture. The gross energy of amahewu products were approx. 20 MJ/kg. There was a slight increase in the lysine content of amahewu after fermentation. Protein digestibility of amahewu (approx.91%) was slightly higher compared to unprocessed provitamin A maize (86%). However, a general decrease was observed in the minerals when compared to the unprocessed provitamin A maize. Amahewu processed using starter cultures has higher iron content than those processed with the addition of malt. These result suggests that provitamin A-biofortified amahewu has the potential to make a significant contribution towards alleviating Vitamin A Deficiency in rural communities who are also the most vulnerable to VAD.

Keywords: Fermentation, biofortification, vitamin A deficiency, provitamin A maize

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2 Effect of Provitamin a Biofortified Maize Inclusion Diet on Consumers' Acceptability of Ovambo Chicken Meat

Authors: Muthulisi Siwela, Feyisayo Odunitan-Wayas, Unathi Kolanisi, Micheal Chimonyo

Abstract:

Consumers’ surveys have indicated low acceptability of provitamin A biofortified maize (PABM), a high vitamin A (HVA) maize in Southern Africa to curb vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Indigenous chickens are reared and consumed by almost all rural households which are the major VAD prone areas in southern Africa. The objective of this study was to determine if HVA diet fed to the Ovambo indigenous chicken breed will influence consumers’ acceptability of the meat. The leg (thigh and drumstick) of the male birds (21 weeks old) were used for the sensory characteristics. 52 consumer panellists evaluated the sensory characteristics on based on a 5-point hedonic scale and preference test. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the preference test between the two diets. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the diets based on all sensory characteristics. Age and gender of the consumers and their interactions had no effect (P<0.05) on the acceptability and sensory characteristic ratings. It was concluded that indigenous chickens fed provitamin A biofortified maize can be a possible tool for curbing VAD in southern Africa regions where there is low acceptability of the human consumption of provitamin A biofortified maize. It was concluded that PABM diet fed to indigenous chickens will not influence the acceptability of the chicken meat by VAD vulnerable consumers.

Keywords: Gender, age, chicken meat, biofortified pro-vitamin a maize, ovambo, sensory characteristics

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1 Process Optimization and Microbial Quality of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Non-Alcoholic Maize Based Beverage

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela

Abstract:

Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed to alleviate Vitamin A deficiency; a major public health problem in developing countries. Amahewu, a non-alcoholic fermented maize based beverage is produced using white maize, which is deficient in Vitamin A. In this study, the suitable processing conditions for the production of amahewu using provitamin A-biofortified maize and the microbial quality of the processed products were evaluated. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was produced with reference to traditional processing method. Processing variables were Inoculum types (Malted provitamin A maize, Wheat bran, and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted provitamin A or wheat bran) and concentration (0.5 %, 1 % and 2 %). A total of four provitamin A-biofortified amahewu products after fermentation were subjected to different storage conditions: 4ᴼC, 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. pH and TTA were monitored throughout the storage period. Sample of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu were plated and observed every day for 5 days to assess the presence of Aerobic and Anaerobic spore formers, E.coli, Lactobacillus and Mould. The addition of starter culture substantially reduced the fermentation time (6 hour, pH 3.3) compared to those with no addition of starter culture (24 hour pH 3.5). It was observed that Lactobacillus were present from day 0 for all the storage temperatures. The presence of aerobic spore former and mould were observed on day 3. E.coli and Anaerobic spore formers were not present throughout the storage period. These microbial growth were minimal at 4ᴼC while 25ᴼC had higher counts of growth with 37ᴼC having the highest colony count. Throughout the storage period, pH of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was stable. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu stored under refrigerated condition (4ᴼC) had better storability compared to 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. The production and microbial quality of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu might be important in combating Vitamin A Deficiency.

Keywords: Fermentation, biofortification, maize, vitamin A deficiency

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