Mohamed Chaieb

Abstracts

3 Phenological Variability among Stipagrostis ciliata Accessions Growing under Arid Bioclimate of Southern of Tunisia

Authors: Lobna Mnif Fakhfakh, Mohamed Chaieb

Abstract:

Most ecological studies in North Africa arid bioclimate reveal a process of continuous degradation of pastoral ecosystems as a result of overgrazing during a long time. This degradation appears across the depletion of perennial grass species. Indeed, the majority of steppe ecosystems are characterized by a low density of perennial grasses. The objective of the present work is to examine the phenology and the above ground growth of several Stipagrostis ciliata accessions, growing under different arid bioclimate of North Africa (case of Tunisia). The results of the ANOVA test, next to the mean values of all measurements show significant differences in all morphological parameters of S. ciliata accessions. Plant diameter, biovolume, root biomass with protective sleeve and spike number show very significant. Differences between S. ciliata accessions. Significance tests for the differences of means indicate high distinctiveness of accessions. Pearson’s correlation analysis of the morphological traits suggests that these traits are significantly and positively correlated. Cluster analysis indicates overall differences among accessions and exhibits the presence of three clusters. The Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied on a table with four observations and 12 variables. Dispersion of Stipagrostis ciliata accessions on the first two axes of principal component analysis confirms the presence of three groups of plants. The characterization of Stipagrostis ciliata plants has shown that significant differences exist in terms of morphological and phenological parameters.

Keywords: Morphology, Stipagrostis ciliata, accession, phenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
2 Germination Behavior of Tricholaena teneriffae L. a perennial Grass Species

Authors: Mohamed Chaieb, Imed Mezghani, Yousra Ben Salah

Abstract:

Tricholaena teneriffae L. is a xerophytic perennial herb that belongs to the Poaceae family likely to be used for ecological restoration programs. It's a dominant and economically important species widely distributed in the Bou-Hedma National Park, Tunisia. Reintroduction and expansion of T. teneriffae depend solely on sexual reproduction. This makes the understanding of its germination requirements vital for conservation and management. To provide basic information for its conservation and reintroduction, we studied the influence of environmental factors on seed germination patterns. The germination responses of seeds were determined over a wide range of constant temperatures (15–35°C), polyethylene glycol solutions of different osmotic potentials (0 to −2 MPa) and salt solution (0 to 150 mM of NaCl). Results indicated that the optimum temperature germination was attained at 25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during mid spring season in the Mediterranean area. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.6 MPa. Germination percentage and rate decreased with an increase NaCl concentration. Seeds germination was substantially delayed and reduced with an increase in NaCl to levels above 50 mM. T. teneriffae is moderately salt tolerant at germination stage.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, temperature, Salt Stress, Germination, water stress, Tricholaena teneriffae L

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
1 Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter: A Promising Pastoral Species for Ecological Restoration in North African Arid Bioclimate

Authors: Lobna Mnif Fakhfakh, Mohamed Chaieb

Abstract:

Most ecological studies in North Africa reveal a process of continuous degradation of pastoral ecosystems as a result of overgrazing. This degradation appears across the depletion of perennial grass species. Indeed, the majority of steppic ecosystems are characterized by a low density of perennial grasses. This phenomenon reveals a drop in food value of rangelands, which is now estimated at less than 100 UF.ha -1. -1 Year in all North African steppes. However, for ecological restoration initiatives, some species such the genus of Stipagrostis and Stipa can be considered a good candidates species for effective pastoral improvement under arid bioclimate. The present work concerns Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter, perennial grasses, abundant in ecosystems characterized by the high content of gypsum (CaSO4)2H2O in the southern Tunisia. This tufted species with C4 biochemical photosynthesis type is able to grow and develop under high temperature and low annual rainfall, where the minimum water potential (ψmd), can reach -4 MPa during the summer season with a phenological growth maintained throughout the season unfavorable. At this point in the early autumn rains, S. ciliata begins its growth, especially with a heading which occurs 2-3 weeks after the first autumn rains. From the foregoing, it can be concluded that Stipagrostis ciliata is an excellent promising pastoral species for the ecological restoration, and enhancement of ecosystems biological productivity in arid bioclimate of North Africa.

Keywords: Ecological restoration, Stipagrostis ciliata, pastoral species, arid bioclimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 275