M. Ghasemi


6 Effect of Massage and Apium Graveolens Consumption on Liver Markers in Sedentary Women

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar, M. Gholinjad Kordan


Aim: liver plays a role in an astounding number of bodily functions: it helps with blood sugar regulation; metabolizes hormones; and traps and breaks down bacteria and toxins. Unfortunately, bodily demands can overwhelm your liver. Massage therapy can help by restoring healthy circulation and speeding the elimination of toxins. Apium graveolens has antioxidant property because of its flavonoid compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine Effect of massage and graveolens consumption on liver markers in women. Methodology: forty non-athlete male students were randomly divided into four groups: 1-control, 2-massage, 3-massage and graveolens and 4-graveolens. Amount of 5cc Blood sampling were obtained pre-test and post-test (after 12 weeks). Subjects received Russian massage for 8 weeks and 3 days a week for 20 minutes. Also, Complementary groups received the capsule supplement of graveolens after eating for twelve weeks and three times a day. Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and tukey in p < 0/05. Results: Based on research findings, twelve weeks massage and graveolens consumption lead to a significant decrease in enzymes activity of ALT, AST and ALP in sedentary women. Conclusion: Results of This study shows that massage or graveolens consumption and especially combination of both can be used as desirable threpatic method in order to reduce or improve symptoms caused by excess weight, especially the liver damage.

Keywords: massage, sedentary women, graveolens, liver markers

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5 The Effects of Chamomile on Serum Levels of Inflammatory Indexes to a Bout of Eccentric Exercise in Young Women

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar, K. Azadeh


Aim: Changes in stress hormones can be modify response of immune system. Cortisol as the most important body corticosteroid is anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive hormone. Normal levels of cortisol in humans has fluctuated during the day, In other words, cortisol is released periodically, and regulate through the release of ACTH circadian rhythm in every day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chamomile on serum levels of inflammatory indexes to a bout of eccentric exercise in young women. Methodology: 32 women were randomly divided into 4 groups: high dose of Chamomile, low dose of Chamomile, ibuprofen and placebo group. Eccentric exercise included 5 set and rest period between sets was 1 minute. For this purpose, subjects warm up 10 min and then done eccentric exercise. Each participant completed 15 repetitions with optional 20 kg weight or until can’t continue moving. When the subject was no longer able to continue to move, immediately decreased 5 kg from the weight and the protocol continued until cause exhaustion or complete 15 repetitions. Also, subjects received specified amount of ibuprofen and Chamomile capsules in target groups. Blood samples in 6 stages (pre of starting pill, pre of exercise protocol, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after eccentric exercise) was obtained. The levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were measured by ELISA way. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p < 0/05 accepted. Results: The results showed that Individual characteristics including height, weight, age and body mass index were not significantly different among the four groups. Analyze of data showed that cortisol and ACTH basic levels significantly decreased after supplementation consumption, but then gradually significantly increased in all stages of post exercise. In High dose of Chamomile group, increasing tendency of post exercise somewhat less than other groups, but not to a significant level. The inter-group analysis results indicate that time effect had a significant impact in different stages of the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study, one session of eccentric exercise increased cortisol and ACTH hormone. The results represent the effect of high dose of Chamomile in the prevention and reduction of increased stress hormone levels. As regards use of medicinal plants and ibuprofen as a pain medication and inflammation has spread among athletes and non-athletes, the results of this research can provide information about the advantages and disadvantages of using medicinal plants and ibuprofen.

Keywords: Eccentric Exercise, chamomile, inflammatory indexes, young girls

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4 Effect of Endurance Training on Serum Chemerin Levels and Lipid Profile of Plasma in Obese Women

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar, A. Moghadasein


Aim: Chemerin is a novel adipokine that play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and abiogenesis. Chemerin is dependent on autocrine and paracrine signals for the differentiation and maturation of fat cells; it also regulates glucose uptake in fat cells and stimulates lipolysis. It has been reported that in adipocytes, chemerin enhances the insulin-stimulated glucose and causes the phosphorylation of tyrosine in Insulin receptor substrate. According to the studies, Chemerin may increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and is largely associated with Body mass index, triglycerides, and blood pressure in those with normal glucose tolerance. There is limited information available regarding the effect of exercise training on serum chemerin concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training on serum chemerin levels and lipids of plasma in overweight women. Methodology: This study was a quasi-experimental research with a pre-post test design. After required examination and verification of high pressure by the physician, 22 obese subjects (age: 35.64±5.55 yr, weight: 75.62±9.30 kg, body mass index: 32.4±1.6 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to aerobic training (n= 12) and control (n= 12) groups. Participants completed a questionnaire indicating the lack of sports history during the past six months, the lack of anti-hypertension drugs use, hormone therapy, cardiovascular problems, and complete stoppage of menstrual cycle. Aerobic training was performed 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Resting levels of chemerin plasma, metabolic parameters were measured prior to and after the intervention. The control group did not participate in any training program. In this study, ethical considerations included the complete description of the objectives to the study participants, ensuring the confidentiality of their information. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levin test were used for determining the normal distribution of data and homogeneity of variances, respectively. Analyze of variance with repeated measure were used to investigate the changes in the intra-group and the differences in inter-group of variables. Statistical operations were performed using SPSS 16 and the significance level of the tests was considered at P < 0.05. Results: After an 8 week aerobic training, levels of chemerin plasma were significantly decreased in aerobic trained group when compared with their control groups (p < 0.05).Concurrently, levels of HDL-c were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) whereas, levels of cholesterol, TG and LDL-c, showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). No significant correlations between chemerin levels and weight loss were observed in subjects with overweight women. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated, 8 weeks aerobic training, reduced serum chemerin concentrations in overweight women. Whereas, aerobic training exercise programmers affected the lipid profile response of obese subjects differently. However further research is warranted in order to unravel the molecular mechanism for the range of responses and the role of serum chemerin.

Keywords: Aerobic Training, lipid profile, chemerin, obese women

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3 Effects of Endurance Training and Thyme Consumption on Neuropeptide Y in Untrained Men

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S.Fazelifar


Abstract Aim: Over-weight is not desirable and has implications for health and in the case of athletes affects performance. Exercise is a strategy used to counteract overweight owing to create a negative energy balance by increasing energy expenditure and influencing appetite regulating hormones. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed inhibitory effects of exercise on the hunger associated with these hormones in healthy subjects Neuropeptide Y(NPY) is a 36 amino acid protein that is a powerful stimulant appetite. NPY is an important central orexigenic hormone predominantly produced by the hypothalamus, and recently found to be secreted in adipose tissue. This neurotransmitter is secreted in the brain and autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, research has shown that thyme in addition to various properties, also affects the appetite. The purpose of this study was to determine Effects of eight weeks endurance training and thyme consumption on neuropeptide Y in untrained men. Methodology: 36 Healthy untrained men (mean body weight 78.25±3.2 kg, height 176±6.8 cm, age 34.32±4.54 years and BMI 29.1±4.3 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in this study . Subjects were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. Endurance training, 3. Thyme 4. Endurance training + Thyme. Amount of 10cc Blood sampling were obtained pre-test and post-test (after 8 weeks). The taken blood samples were centrifuged at 1500 × g for 15 min then plasma was stored at -20 °C until analysis. Endurance training consisted three session per week with 60% -75% of reserve heart rate for eight weeks. Exclusion criteria were history of gastrointestinal, endocrine, cardiovascular or psychological disease, and consuming any supplementation, alcohol and tobacco products. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for all measures. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0/05 accepted. Results: Results showed that aerobic training significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, but significant increase observed in maximal oxygen consumption level (p ≤ 0/05). The neuropeptide Y levels were significantly increased after exercise. Analysis of data determined that there was no significant difference between the four groups. Conclusion: Appetite control plays a critical role in the competition between energy consumption and energy expenditure. The results of this study showed that endurance training and thyme consumption can be cause improvement in physiological parameters such as increasing aerobic capacity, reduction of fat mass and improve body composition in untrained men.

Keywords: Endurance Training, thyme, neuropeptide Y, untrained men

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2 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Apple Vinegar on Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Older Women

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar


Aim: Recent studies on cardiovascular risk factors have been focused on the new markers of inflammatory diseases such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Research evidence shows that physical activity along with other factors such as reduced smoking, controlling blood pressure, control blood lipids TC, LDL-c, HDL-c and having a healthy weight can reduce the risk of chronic heart disease (CHD) .Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of twelve weeks aerobic exercise and consumption of apple vinegar on cardiovascular risk factor in older women. Methodology: 28 inactive women (mean body weight 72.13 ± 8.6 kg, height 157 ± 7.4cm, age 48.06 ± 5.18 years and BMI 28.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2) by recall and notice of investigation, among of the eligible voters recruited and randomly divided in 4 groups: control, apple vinegar, exercise, exercise + apple vinegar. The training program includes a 20-minute warm-up and stretching, running for 15 minutes in the first session with an intensity of 80% of maximum heart rate and an increase in one-minute run time in next training session. Also, subjects in experimental groups received daily specified amount of 50 ml apple vinegar. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein in before and after training to measure CRP and blood lipids (cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL). The levels of CRP were measured by ELISA way. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p < 0/05 accepted. Results: The results indicated that individual characteristics including height, weight, age, and body mass index were not significantly different among the four groups. The results showed that levels of CRP and LDL cholesterol were significantly reduced in all groups at post-test compared to the pre-test. The HDL levels increased significantly in all groups in post-test compared to the pre-test. Analysis of the data indicates that levels of CRP, TC, and LDL were significantly reduced in all groups compared to the control group, while the changes in the other groups were not significant relative to each other. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that twelve weeks of aerobic exercise with apple vinegar cause a significant decrease in CRP, cholesterol, LDL, and significantly increased HDL levels. According to the results of this study, it is possible that aerobic exercise with apple vinegar can inhibit CRP and undesirable fats. Considering the strong association between the inflammatory indices and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, every factor that decreases these indices can reduce the cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, older women, apple vinegar, CRP

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1 Modeling of Bioelectric Activity of Nerve Cells Using Bond Graph Method

Authors: M. Ghasemi, F. Eskandari, B. Hamzehei, A. R. Arshi


Bioelectric activity of nervous cells might be changed causing by various factors. This alteration can lead to unforeseen circumstances in other organs of the body. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to model a single neuron and its behavior under an initial stimulation. This study was developed based on cable theory by means of the Bond Graph method. The numerical values of the parameters were derived from empirical studies of cellular electrophysiology experiments. Initial excitation was applied through square current functions, and the resulted action potential was estimated along the neuron. The results revealed that the model was developed in this research adapted with the results of experimental studies and demonstrated the electrical behavior of nervous cells properly.

Keywords: Modeling, bond graph, stimulation, nervous cells

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