Muhammad Arshad


12 Family Cohesion, Interpersonal Difficulties and Mental Health Problems in University Students

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Narmeen Ali


Cohesion has an exact association with family functioning and enmeshment (togetherness) on one side and disengagement (separateness) on the other. Family cohesion can apprehend as a concerned association that family members have with each other and an affirmation of association inside the family. Family cohesion, assigned as the level of congruity or sympathetic or emotional attachment that relatives have toward each other, and it was seen to be associated with relational well-being and feeling of comfort in the young generation. The cross-sectional research design was used by the researcher to answer the research questions. A stratified sampling technique was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was collected equally from the males and females of different universities and different departments of Lahore, Pakistan. A self-report questionnaire was developed of given literature and which were found to be associated with family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties and mental health problems of university students. The demographic information included age, gender, university’s name, class, family system, parent’s education, parent’s profession, number of siblings and birth order. Correlation shows the negative relation between balanced cohesion and interpersonal difficulties, while interpersonal difficulties have a highly positive relationship with mental health problems. Mental health problems also have a negative correlation with the balanced family cohesion. Gender, family system, depression and anxiety are the significant predictors of interpersonal difficulties scale in university students. And gender showed a significant difference regarding family cohesion and interpersonal difficulty scale, as women reported more interpersonal difficulties than men.

Keywords: Mental health problems, Family Cohesion, university students, interpersonal difficulties

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11 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Shahid Majeed


Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: maize, abundance, evenness, richness

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10 Geographic Variation in the Baseline Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Field Populations to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins for Resistance Monitoring

Authors: A. Aslam, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad D. Gogi, M. Sufian


The transgenic cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides an effective control of Helicoverpa armigera, a most damaging pest of the cotton crop. However, Bt cotton may not be the optimal solution owing to the selection pressure of Cry toxins. As Bt cotton express the insecticidal proteins throughout the growing seasons, there are the chances of resistance development in the target pests. A regular monitoring and surveillance of target pest’s baseline susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins is crucial for early detection of any resistance development. The present study was conducted to monitor the changes in the baseline susceptibility of the field population of H. armigera to Bt Cry1Ac toxin. The field-collected larval populations were maintained in the laboratory on artificial diet and F1 generation larvae were used for diet incorporated diagnostic studies. The LC₅₀ and MIC₅₀ were calculated to measure the level of resistance of population as a ratio over susceptible population. The monitoring results indicated a significant difference in the susceptibility (LC₅₀) of H. armigera for first, second, third and fourth instar larval populations sampled from different cotton growing areas over the study period 2016-17. The variations in susceptibility among the tested insects depended on the age of the insect and susceptibility decreased with the age of larvae. The overall results show that the average resistant ratio (RR) of all field-collected populations (FSD, SWL, MLT, BWP and DGK) exposed to Bt toxin Cry1Ac ranged from 3.381-fold to 7.381-fold for 1st instar, 2.370-fold to 3.739-fold for 2nd instar, 1.115-fold to 1.762-fold for 3rd instar and 1.141-fold to 2.504-fold for 4th instar, depicting maximum RR from MLT population, whereas minimum RR for FSD and SWL population. The results regarding moult inhibitory concentration of H. armigera larvae (1-4th instars) exposed to different concentrations of Bt Cry1Ac toxin indicated that among all field populations, overall Multan (MLT) and Bahawalpur (BWP) populations showed higher MIC₅₀ values as compared to Faisalabad (FSD) and Sahiwal (SWL), whereas DG Khan (DGK) population showed an intermediate moult inhibitory concentrations. This information is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs. The development of Bt Cry toxins baseline susceptibility data before the widespread commercial release of transgenic Bt cotton cultivars in Pakistan is important for the development of more effective resistance monitoring programs to identify the resistant H. armigera populations.

Keywords: Bt cotton, baseline, H. armigera, Cry1Ac toxins

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9 Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxins

Authors: Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Muhammad Arshad, Afifa Naeem, Ayesha Iftekhar


Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of Bacilli and it produces ICP (insecticidal crystal protein) Cry toxins or Cysts toxins. Spores are produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions bodies (also known as endotoxins) at the onset of sporulation during the stationary growth phase. During vegetative growth that does not form crystals and is called vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and secreted an insecticidal protein (SIP). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is important for pest management either in the form of insecticides or through incorporated in the gene of the crop. Bioassays were conducted on the F2 generation of 1st instar larvae of H. armigera by the diet incorporation method to determine the susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.11 to 1.06 µg/ml and moult inhibitory concentration (MIC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.05 to 0.25 µg/ml. Cry1Ac was found most toxic to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera as compared to other Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The experimental results are important to policy-makers and technology providers to develop strategies for the exploitation of transgenic Bt cotton varieties as a component of integrated pest management.

Keywords: Susceptibility, helicoverpa armigera, Cry1Ac, Bt toxin, Cry2Ab, Cry2A

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8 Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Ahmad Nawaz, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, M. Sufian


Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.

Keywords: Silkworm, Mortality, heavy-metals, larval-instars, lethal-concentration

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7 Evaluation of Neonicotinoids Against Sucking Insect Pests of Cotton in Laboratory and Field Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad D. Gogi, Ahmad Nawaz


Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) universally known as silver fiber and is one of the most important cash crop of Pakistan. A wide array of pests constraints cotton production among which sucking insect pests cause serious losses. Mostly new chemistry insecticides used to control a wide variety of insect pests including sucking insect pests. In the present study efficacy of different neonicotinoids was evaluated against sucking insect pests of cotton in the field and in laboratory for red and dusky cotton bug. The experiment was conducted at Entomology Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Confidence Ultra (Imidacloprid) 70% SL, Confidor (Imidacloprid) 20% SL, Kendo (Lambda cyhalothrin) 24.7 SC, Actara (Thiamethoxam) 25% WG, Forcast (Tebufenozide+ Emamectin benzoate) 8.8 EW and Timer (Emamectin benzoate) 1.9 EC at their recommended doses. The data was collected on per leaf basis of thrips, aphid, jassid and whitefly before 24 hours of spray. The post treatment data was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The fresh, non-infested and untreated cotton leaves was collected from the field and brought to the laboratory to assess the efficacy of neonicotinoids against red and dusky cotton bug. After data analysis all the insecticides were found effective against sucking pests. Confidence Ultra was highly effective against the aphid, jassid, and whitefly and gave maximum mortality, while showed non-significant results against thrips. In case of aphid plot which was treated with Kando 24.7 SC showed significant mortality after 72 hours of pesticide application. Similar trends were found in laboratory conditions with all these treatments by making different concentrations and had significant impact on dusky cotton bug and red cotton bug population after 24, 48 and 72 hours after application.

Keywords: Cotton, neonicotinoids, laboratory and field conditions, sucking insect pests

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6 Impact of ‎Foliar ‎Formulations of Macro and Micro Nutrients on ‎the ‎Tritrophic Association of Wheat Aphid ‎and Entomophagous Insects

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad J. Arif, Usman Shoukat


In Pakistan, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is seriously attacked by the wheat ‎aphid. Naturally, bio control agents play an important role in managing wheat aphid. However, association ‎among pest, natural enemies and host plant is highly affected by food resource ‎concentration and predator/parasitoid factor of any ecosystem. The present ‎study was conducted to estimate the effect of different dose levels of macro ‎and micronutrients on the aphid population and its entomophagous insect ‎on wheat and their tri-trophic association. The experiment was laid out in ‎RCBD with six different combinations of macro and micronutrients and a control treatment. The data was initiated from the second week of ‎the February till the maturity of the crop. Data regarding aphid population and ‎coccinellids counts were collected on weekly basis and subjected to analysis of ‎variance and mean comparison. The data revealed that aphid ‎population was at peak in the last week of March. Coccinellids population ‎increased side by side with aphid population and declined after second week of ‎April. Aphid parasitism was maximum 25% on recommended dose of Double and ‎Flasher and minimum 8.67% on control treatment. Maximum aphid population was observed on first April with 687.2 specimens. However, this maximum population was shown against the application of Double + Flasher treatment. The minimum aphid population was recorded after the application of HiK Gold + Flasher recommended dose on 15th April. The coccinellids population was at peak level at on 8th April and against the treatment double recommended dose of HiK gold + Flasher. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage dry leaves ‎components was maximum (2.33, 0.18 and 2.62 % dry leaves. respectively) in ‎plots treated with recommended double dose mixture of Double + Flasher and ‎Hi-K Gold + Flasher while it was minimum (1.43, 0.12 and 1.77 dry leaves ‎respectively) in plots where no nutrients applied. The result revealed that maximum parasitism was at recommended level of micro and macro nutrients application.‎ Maximum micro nutrients zinc, copper, manganese, iron and boron found with values 46.67 ppm, 21.81 ppm, 62.35 ppm, 152.69 ppm and 36.78 respectively. The result also showed that Over application of macro and micro nutrients should be avoided because it do not help in pest control, conversely it may cause stress on plant. The treatment Double and Flasher recommended dose ratio is almost comparable with recommended dose and present studies confirm its usefulness on wheat.

Keywords: entomophagous insects, macro and micro nutrients, tri-trophic, wheat aphid

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5 A Comparative Study on the Synthesis, Characterizations and Biological (Antibacterial and Antifungal) Activities of Zinc Doped Silica Oxide Nanoparticles Based on Various Solvents

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Arshad, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti


Zinc-doped silica oxide nanoparticles having size 7.93nm were synthesized by the deposition precipitation method by using different solvents (acetonitrile, n-hexane, isoamylalchol). Biological potential such as antibacterial activities against Bacillussubtilusand Escherichia coli, and antifungal activities against Candida parapsilosis and Aspergilusniger were also investigated by Disc diffusion method. Different characterizations techniques including Fournier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Thermo-gravimeteric Analysis (TGA), Atomic forced microscopy (AFM), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were used. FT-IR characterization confirmed the presence of metal oxide bond (SiO2) while XRD showed the hexagonal structure. SEM and TEM characterization showed the morphology of nanoparticles. AFM study showed good particle size distribution as depicted by a histogram. DLS study showed the gradual decease in the size of nanoparticles from 24.86nm to 13.24 nm. Highest antibacterial activities revealed by acetonitrile solvents (6%and 4.5%) followed by isoamylalchol (3% and 2.4%) while n-hexane solvent showed the lowest activity (2%and 1%) respectively. Higher antifungal activities exhibited by n-hexane (0.34 % and 0.43%) followed by isoamylalchol (0.27% and 0.19%) solvent while acetonitrile (0.21% and 0.17%) showed least activity respectively. Statistical analysis by using one-way ANOVA also indicated the significant results of both biological activities.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Antibacterial, Characterizations, Antifungal, precipitation methods

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4 Potential of Two Pelargonium Species for EDTA-Assisted Phytoextraction of Cadmium

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Iram Gul, Maria Manzoor


The enhanced phytoextraction techniques have been proposed for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil. Chelating agents enhance the availability of Cd, which is the main factor in the phytoremediation. This study was conducted to assessed the potential of two Pelargonium species (Pelargonium zonale, Pelargonium hortorum) in EDTA enhanced phytoextraction of Cd using pot experiment. Different doses of EDTA (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mmol kg-1) was used, and results showed that there was significant increase (approximately 2.1 folds) in the mobility of Cd at EDTA 5 mg kg-1 as compared to control. Both plants have TF and BCF more than 1 and have potential for the phytoextraction of Cd. However, the Pelargonium hortorum showed higher biomass and Cd uptake as compared to Pleragonium zonale. The maximum Cd accumulation in shoot and root of Pelargonium zonale was 484.4 and 264.41 mg kg-1 respectively at 2 mmol kg-1. However, the Pelargonium hortorum accumulate 996.9 and 350 mg kg-1 of Cd in shoot and root respectively at 4 mmol kg-1. Pelargonium hortorum uptake approximately 10.7 folds higher Cd concentration as compared to the Pelargonium zonale. Results revealed that P. hortorum performed better than P. zonal even at higher Cd and EDTA doses however toxicity and leaching potential of increased Cd and EDTA concentrations needs to be explored before field application.

Keywords: cadmium, EDTA, phytoextraction, Pelargonium

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3 Potential of Lead Tolerant and Mobilizing Fungus for Plant Growth Promotion through Plant Growth Promoting Activity; A Promising Approach for Enhance Phytoremediation

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Iram Gul, Maria Manzoor, Jean Kallerhoff


The potential of fungal isolates to be used in phytoremediation of widespread lead contaminated soil has been evaluated in this study. Five different fungal isolates (Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Mucor spp.) were obtained and tested for their tolerance to increasing concentration of lead (Pb) i.e. 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mgL-1 on PDA and PDB culture experiment. All strains were tolerant up to 500 mgL-1 following sequence; A. flavus > A. niger > Mucor spp. > P. simplicissimum > T. harzianum. Further the isolates were then monitored for possible effect on Pb solubility/mobility through soil incubation experiments and characterized for essays including pathogenicity, germination and root elongation and plant growth promoting activities including IAA (indole acetic acid), phosphorus solubilization and gibberellic acid (GA3) production. Results revealed that fungal isolates have positive effect on Pb mobility in soil and plant biomass production. Pb solubility was significantly (P> 0.05) increased in soil upon application of Mucor spp. P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum. when compared to control. Among different strains three isolates (Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum) were nonpathogenic because no inhibitory effect of fungus was observed to plant growth when exposed to these strains in root shoot elongation essay. Particularly T. harzianum and P. simplicissimum showed great ability to increase root length by 1.1 and 1.3 folds and shoot length by 1.47 and 1.5 folds respectively under Pb stress (500 mgL-1). Significantly high production of IAA was observed in A. niger (26.7 μg/ml), Phosphorus solubilization was observed in T. harzianum (9.15 μg/ml) and GA3 production was observed in P. simplicissimum (11.02 μg/ml). From results it is concluded that Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum have potential to increase Pb mobility and improving plant growth under highy Pb contamination, therefore can be used in microbially assisted phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

Keywords: Pb tolerant fungus, Pb mobility, plant growth promoting activities, indole acetic acid (IAA)

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2 Selection of Lead Mobilizing Bacteria from Contaminated Soils and Their Potential in Promoting Plant Growth through Plant Growth Promoting Activity

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Iram Gul, Maria Manzoor


Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The strains were investigated for lead resistance and their effect on Pb solubility and PGPR activity. Incubation experiments were carried for inoculated and unoculated soil containing different levels of Pb. Results revealed that few stains (BTM-4, BTM-11, BTM-14) were able to tolerate Pb up to 600 mg L-1, whereas five strains (BTM-3, BTM-6, BTM-10, BTM-21 and BTM-24) showed significant increase in solubility of Pb when compared to all other strains and control. The CaCl2 extractable Pb was increased by 13.6, 6.8, 4.4 and 2.4 folds compared to un-inoculated control soil at increased soil Pb concentration (500, 1000, 1500 and 200 mg kg-1, respectively). The selected bacterial strains (11) were further investigated for plant growth promotion activity through PGPR assays including. Germination and root elongation assays were also conducted under elevated metal concentration in controlled conditions to elucidate the effects of microbial strains upon plant growth and development. The results showed that all the strains tested in this study, produced significantly varying concentrations of IAA, siderophores and gibberellic acid along with ability to phosphorus solubilization index (PSI). The results of germination and root elongation assay further confirmed the beneficial role of the microbial strains in elevating metal stress through PGPR activity. Among all tested strains, BTM-10 significantly improved plant growth. 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in root and shoot length was observed when compared to control. Which may be attributed to presence of important plant growth promoting enzymes (IAA 74.6 μg/ml; GA 19.23 μg/ml; Sidrophore units 49% and PSI 1.3 cm). The outcome of this study indicates that these Pb tolerant and solubilizing strains may have the potential for plant growth promotion under metal stress and can be used as mediator when coupled with heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

Keywords: Pb resistant bacteria, Pb mobilizing bacteria, Phytoextraction of Pb, PGPR activity of bacteria

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1 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Ashraf, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed


Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: body size, condition factor, Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis

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