Riaz Hussain

Abstracts

4 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Ijaz Javed, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µg.hr/mL and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, Sheep, ciprofloxacin, dosage regimen

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3 Hemato-Biochemical Studies on Naturally Infected Camels with Trypanosomiasis

Authors: Khalid Mehmood, Abdul Ghaffar, Riaz Hussain, Tariq Abbas, Rao Z. Abbas, Ahmad J. Sabir

Abstract:

Blood born diseases such as trypanosomiasis have negative impacts on health, production and working efficiency of camels in different camel-rearing areas of the world including Pakistan. In present study blood samples were collected from camels kept at the desert condition of cholistan to estimate the prevalence of trypanosomiasis and hemato-biochemical changes in naturally infected cases. Results showed an overall 9.31% prevalence of trypanosomiasis in camels. Various clinical signs such as pyrexia, occasional shivering, inappetence, urticaria, swelling, lethargy, going down in condition and edema of pads were observed in few cases. The statistical analysis did not show significant association of age and sex with trypanosomiasis. However, results revealed significantly decreased values of total erythrocyte counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum total proteins and albumin while increased values of mean corpuscular volume was recorded in infected animals as compared to healthy. A significant (P<0.01) increased values of total leukocyte count, monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophils, and eosinophils was recorded in infected animals. Moreover, microscopic examination of blood films obtained from naturally infected cases showed the presence of parasite and various morphological changes in cells such as stomatocyte, hyperchromasia, and polychromasia. Significantly increased values of different hepatic enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also recorded.

Keywords: camel, hematological indices, serum enzymes, Trypanosomiasis

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2 Pathological and Molecular Diagnosis of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Chinkara Deer (Gazella Bennettii), in Pakistan

Authors: Khalid Mehmood, Abdul Ghaffar, Farah Ali, Riaz Hussain, Mudassar Iqbal, Fazal Mahmood

Abstract:

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an important cause of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a complex, chronic devastating and destructive disease of small ruminants. In present study, postmortem examination of Chinkara deer (n=25) was conducted in year 2014. Pus samples suggestive of CL were collected from the superficial lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs during necropsy and subjected to standard microbiological procedures for isolation and molecular analysis of bacterial pathogens. Pus samples collected from carcasses (25) presenting clinical lesions of C. pseudotuberculosis infection was identified in 19 (76%) carcasses on the basis of culture characteristics. The frequency of C. pseudotuberculosis bacterium was higher in older animals as compared to young animals. Grossly, multiple tubercles of variable size having caseous material were observed in liver, lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, tissue sections from all the visceral organs were extensively plugged with abscess. In present study specific prolineiminopeptidase (PIP) gene of the C. pseudotuberculosis was amplified by the Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in 17(25) cases. The efficient and reliable molecular analysis along with necropsy findings in present study can be used as valuable approach for diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants.

Keywords: PCR, Chinkara deer, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Caseous lymphadenitis

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1 Oxidative Status and Some Serum Macro Minerals during Estrus, Anestrous and Repeat Breeding in Cholistani Cattle

Authors: Farah Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Riaz Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to determine the macro mineral profile and biomarkers of oxidative stress in Cholistani cattle kept at a public farm and various villages in district Bahawalpur. For this purpose 90 blood samples were collected each from estrual, anestrous and repeat breeding cattle having different age and lactation number. Reproductive tract examination of all the cattle was carried out to determine the reproductive status. Blood samples without EDTA were collected for serum separation at day of estrus (normal cyclic), repeat breeder and anestrous cows. The serum calcium levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in anestrous (7.31±0.02 mg/dl) cattle as compared to estrus. However, these values were non-significantly different between repeat breeder and cattle having estrus phase. The concentrations of serum phosphorus were significantly higher (P<0.01) in normal estrual (4.99±0.08 mg/dl) as compared torepeat breeder (3.90±0.06 mg/dl) and anestrous (3.82±0.04 mg/dl) Cholistani cattle. Mean serum MDA (nmol/ml) levels of repeat breeder (2.68±0.18) and anestrous (2.54±0.22) were significantly(P<0.01) higher than the estrous (1.71±0.03) cattle. Moreover, the serum nitric oxide levels(µmol/L) were also increased significantly (P<0.01) in repeat breeder(58.28±4.01)and anestrous (61.40±9.40) than the normalestrous (31.67±6.71) cattle. The ratio of Ca: P in normal cyclic animals was lower (1.73:1) as compared to the anestrous animals (1.92:1). It can be concluded from the present study that the level of Ca: P should also be near to 1.5:1 for better reproductive performance.

Keywords: Minerals, Oxidative Stress, anestrus, cholistani cattle, repeat breeder

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