Radovan Čobanović

Abstracts

7 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Danijela Vuković, Milorad Plačkić

Abstract:

The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: Safety, Microbiology, Hygiene, feed

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6 Monitoring of Sustainability of Decorated Confectionary Product 'Moskva Cake' in Order to Define the Expiration Date

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov-Sicar

Abstract:

The fresh cake is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability has been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 10 days. According to the plan of sustainability, it was defined that 5 samples had to be stored for 20 days at max +8°C and analyzed every 5th day from the day of reception until the 20th day. The shelf life of cake has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 10th and 20th day of analyses. Cake samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analysis (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) according to Serbian state regulation. All analysis were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, and Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21258-2. Analyses showed that after ten days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cake did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned, neither one pathogen was detected and number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level less than 102 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 20th day of storage, the sensory analysis showed the presence of strange sour-milky smell and rancid taste. Concerning microbiological analyses, there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level more than 103cfu/g. Reviewing the results of sensory analysis indicates that it is not recommended to extend the shelf-life of the product comparing to the already defined shelf-life because occurred changes may adversely affect the consumer desire for the choice of this product.

Keywords: Sustainability, extension of shelf life, confectionary product, sensory and microbiological analyses

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5 Microbiological Analysis of Biofuels in Order to Follow Stability on Room Temperature

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. It is derived by alcoholysis of triacylglycerols (triglycerides) from various lipid based materials that can be traditionally categorized into the following main groups: vegetable oils, animal fats, waste and algal oils. The goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological stability of biodiesel samples since it has been made from vegetable oil or animal fat which was stored on room temperature. For the purposes of this study, analyzes were conducted on six samples of biodiesel first at zero sample at the reception day than fifth, thirtieth, sixtieth, ninetieth and one hundred twentieth day from the day of reception. During this period, biodiesel samples were subjected to microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count). All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-1, total plate count ISO 4833-1. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 120 days indicate that are no changes of products concerning microbiological analyses. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and results for total plate count showed values < 10 cfu/g for all six samples. On the basis of this monitoring under defined storage conditions at room temperatures, the results showed that biodiesel is very stable as far as microbiological analysis were concerned.

Keywords: Microbiology, Stability, Biodiesel, room temperature

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4 Monitoring of Sustainability of Extruded Soya Product TRADKON SPC-TEX in Order to Define Expiration Date

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

New attitudes about nutrition impose new styles, and therefore a neNew attitudes about nutrition impose new styles, and therefore a new kind of food. The goal of our work was to define the shelf life of new extruded soya product with minimum 65% of protein based on the analyses. According to the plan it was defined that a certain quantity of the same batch of new product (soybean flakes) which had predicted shelf life of 2 years had to be stored for 24 months in storage and analyzed at the beginning and end of sustainability plan on instrumental analyses (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) and every month on sensory analyses (odor, taste, color, consistency), microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, sulfite-reducing clostridia, Listeria monocytogenes), chemical analyses (protein, ash, fat, crude cellulose, granulation) and at the beginning on GMO analyses. All analyses were tested according to: sensory analyses ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Escherichia coli ISO 16649-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2, sulfite-reducing clostridia ISO 15213 and Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, chemical and instrumental analyses Serbian ordinance on the methods of physico-chemical analyses and GMO analyses JRC Compendium. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 24 months indicate that are no changes of products concerning both sensory and chemical analyses. As far as microbiological results are concerned Salmonella spp was not detected and all other quantitative analyses showed values <10 cfu/g. The other parameters for food safety (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) were not present in analyzed samples and also all analyzed samples were negative concerning genetic testing. On the basis of monitoring the sample under defined storage conditions and analyses of quality control, GMO analyses and food safety of the sample during the shelf within two years, the results showed that all the parameters of the sample during defined period is in accordance with Serbian regulative so that indicate that predicted shelf life can be adopted.w kind of food. The goal of our work was to define the shelf life of new extruded soya product with minimum 65% of protein based on the analyses. According to the plan it was defined that a certain quantity of the same batch of new product (soybean flakes) which had predicted shelf life of 2 years had to be stored for 24 months in storage and analyzed at the beginning and end of sustainability plan on instrumental analyses (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) and every month on sensory analyses (odor, taste, color, consistency), microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, sulfite-reducin clostridia, Listeria monocytogenes), chemical analyses (protein, ash, fat, crude cellulose, granulation) and at the beginning on GMO analyses. All analyses were tested according: sensory analyses ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Escherichia coli ISO 16649-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2, sulfite-reducing clostridia ISO 15213 and Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, chemical and instrumental analyses Serbian ordinance on the methods of physico-chemical analyses and GMO analyses JRC Compendium. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 24 months indicate that are no changes of products concerning both sensory and chemical analyses. As far as microbiological results are concerned Salmonella spp was not detected and all other quantitative analyses showed values <10 cfu/g. The other parameters for food safety (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) were not present in analyzed samples and also all analyzed samples were negative concerning genetic testing. On the basis of monitoring the sample under defined storage conditions and analyses of quality control, GMO analyses and food safety of the sample during the shelf within two years, the results showed that all the parameters of the sample during defined period is in accordance with Serbian regulative so that indicate that predicted shelf life can be adopted.

Keywords: Shelf Life, extruded soya product, food safety analyses, GMO analyses

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3 Control of the Sustainability of Decorative Topping for Bakery in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

In the modern bakery various supplements are used to attract more customers. Analyzed sample decorative toppings are consisted of flax seeds, corn grits, oatmeal, wheat flakes, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, soybean sprouts are used as decoration for the bread. Our goal was to extend the product shelf life based on the analysis. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that sample which already had expired shelf life had to be stored for 5 months at 25°C and analyzed every month from the day of reception until spoilage occurs. Samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, and consistency), microbiological analysis (Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Enterobacteriaceae and moulds) and chemistry analysis (free fatty acids (as oleic), peroxide number, water content and degree of acidity). All analyses were tested according: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2 and moulds ISO 21527-1, free fatty acids (as oleic) ISO 660, peroxide number ISO 3960, water content and degree of acidity Serbian ordinance on the methods of chemical analysis. After five months of storage, there had been the first changes concerning of sensory properties of the product. In the sample were visible worms and creations which look like spider nets linking seeds and cereal. The sample had smell on rancid and pungent. The results of microbiological analysis showed that Salmonella spp was not detected, Enterobacteriaceae were < 10 cfu/g during all 5 months but in fifth month Bacillus cereus and moulds occurred 700 cfu/g and 1500 cfu/g respectively. Chemical analyzes showed that the water content did not exceed a maximum of 14%. The content of free fatty acids ranged from 3.06 to 3.26%, degree of acidity from 3.69 to 4.9. With increasing degree of acidity the degradation of the sample and the activity of microorganisms was increased which led to the formation of acid reaction which is accompanied by the appearance of unpleasant odor and taste. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product can have longer shelf life for four months than shelf life which is already defined because there are no changes that could have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: Sustainability, bakery products, extension of shelf life, sensory and chemical and microbiological analyses

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2 Control of the Sustainability of Fresh Cheese in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

The fresh cheese is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability have been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 15 days. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that 35 samples had to be stored for 30 days at 2°C−6°C and analyzed every 7th day from the day of reception until 30th day. Shelf life of the cheese has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 15th and 30th day of analyses. Cheese samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and total plate count) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Staphylococcus aureus ISO 6888-1, and total plate count ISO 4833. Analyses showed that after fifteen days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cheese did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no separation of whey and there was not presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned neither one pathogen was detected and total plate count was at level of 103 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 30th day of storage, the analysis showed that there was a separation of whey on the surface. Along the edge of the container was present a dried part of cheese and sour-milky smell and taste were very weakly expressed. Concerning the microbiological analyses there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the total plate count was at a level of 106cfu/g. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product cannot have longer shelf life than shelf life which is already defined because there are a sensory changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: Product, Sustainability, shelf-life, fresh cheese

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1 Sensory and Microbiological Sustainability of Smoked Meat Products–Smoked Ham in Order to Determine the Shelf-Life under the Changed Conditions at +15°C

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

The meat is in the group of perishable food which can be spoiled very rapidly if stored at room temperature. Salting in combination with smoke is intended to extend shelf life, and also to form the specific taste, odor and color. The smoke do not affect only on taste and flavor of the product, it has a bactericidal and oxidative effect and that is the reason because smoked products are less susceptible to oxidation and decay processes. According to mentioned the goal of this study was to evaluate shelf life of smoked ham, which is stored in conditions of high temperature (+15 °C). For the purposes of this study analyzes were conducted on eight samples of smoked ham every 7th day from the day of reception until 21st day. During this period, smoked ham is subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579 and yeasts and molds ISO 21527-2. Results of sensory analysis of smoked ham indicating that the samples after the first seven days of storage showed visual changes at the surface in the form of allocations of salt, most likely due to the process of drying out the internal parts of the product. The sample, after fifteen days of storage had intensive exterior changes, but the taste was still acceptable. Between the fifteenth and twenty-first day of storage, there is an unacceptable change on the surface and inside of the product and the occurrence of molds and yeasts but neither one analyzed pathogen was found. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this type of product cannot be stored for more than seven days at an elevated temperature of +15°C because there are a visual changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: Food Engineering, Sustainability, Agricultural Process Engineering, smoked meat products

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