Ching-Sung Lee

Abstracts

2 Improved Non-Ideal Effects in AlGaN/GaN-Based Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu

Abstract:

This work uses H2O2 oxidation technique to improve the pH sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). 10-nm-thick Al2O3 was grown on the surface of the AlGaN. It was found that the pH sensitivity was improved from 41.6 mV/pH to 55.2 mV/pH. Since the H2O2-grown Al2O3 was served as a passivation layer and the problem of Fermi-level pinning was suppressed for the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process. Hysteresis effect in the ISFET with the H2O2 treatment also became insignificant. The hysteresis effect was observed by dipping the ISFETs into different pH value solutions and comparing the voltage difference between the initial and final conditions. The hysteresis voltage (Vhys) of the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process was improved from 8.7 mV to 4.8 mV. The hysteresis effect is related to the buried binding sites which are related to the material defects like threading dislocations in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure which was grown by the hetero-epitaxy technique. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 passivate these material defects and the Al2O3 has less material defects. The long-term stability of the ISFET is estimated by the drift effect measurement. The drift measurement was conducted by dipping the ISFETs into a specific pH value solution for 12 hours and the ISFETs were operating at a specific quiescent point. The drift rate is estimated by the drift voltage divided by the total measuring time. It was found that the drift rate of the ISFET was improved from 10.1 mV/hour to 1.91 mV/hour in the pH 7 solution, from 14.06 mV/hour to 6.38 mV/pH in the pH 2 solution, and from 12.8 mV/hour to 5.48 mV/hour in the pH 12 solution. The drift effect results from the capacitance variation in the electric double layer. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 provides an additional capacitance connection in series with the electric double layer. Therefore, the capacitance variation of the electric double layer became insignificant. Generally, the H2O2 oxidation process is a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for the AlGaN/GaN-based ISFET. Furthermore, the performance of the AlGaN/GaN ISFET was improved effectively and the non-ideal effects were suppressed.

Keywords: Reliability, passivation, Al2O3, AlGaN/GaN, hysteresis effect, drift effect, pH sensors

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1 Al2O3-Dielectric AlGaN/GaN Enhancement-Mode MOS-HEMTs by Using Ozone Water Oxidization Technique

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu, Hung-Hsi Huang, Si-Fu Chen, Yun-Jung Yang, Bo-Chun Chiang, Yu-Chuang Chen, Shen-Tin Yang

Abstract:

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic advantages of high breakdown electric field, high electron saturation velocity, and excellent chemical stability. They are also suitable for ultra-violet (UV) photodetection due to the corresponding wavelengths of GaN bandgap. To improve the optical responsivity by decreasing the dark current due to gate leakage problems and limited Schottky barrier heights in GaN-based HEMT devices, various metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) have been devised by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase deposition (LPD), and RF sputtering. The gate dielectrics include MgO, HfO2, Al2O3, La2O3, and TiO2. In order to provide complementary circuit operation, enhancement-mode (E-mode) devices have been lately studied using techniques of fluorine treatment, p-type capper, piezoneutralization layer, and MOS-gate structure. This work reports an Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMT design by using a cost-effective ozone water oxidization technique. The present ozone oxidization method advantages of low cost processing facility, processing simplicity, compatibility to device fabrication, and room-temperature operation under atmospheric pressure. It can further reduce the gate-to-channel distance and improve the transocnductance (gm) gain for a specific oxide thickness, since the formation of the Al2O3 will consume part of the AlGaN barrier at the same time. The epitaxial structure of the studied devices was grown by using the MOCVD technique. On a Si substrate, the layer structures include a 3.9 m C-doped GaN buffer, a 300 nm GaN channel layer, and a 5 nm Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier layer. Mesa etching was performed to provide electrical isolation by using an inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Ti/Al/Au were thermally evaporated and annealed to form the source and drain ohmic contacts. The device was immersed into the H2O2 solution pumped with ozone gas generated by using an OW-K2 ozone generator. Ni/Au were deposited as the gate electrode to complete device fabrication of MOS-HEMT. The formed Al2O3 oxide thickness 7 nm and the remained AlGaN barrier thickness is 2 nm. A reference HEMT device has also been fabricated in comparison on the same epitaxial structure. The gate dimensions are 1.2 × 100 µm 2 with a source-to-drain spacing of 5 μm for both devices. The dielectric constant (k) of Al2O3 was characterized to be 9.2 by using C-V measurement. Reduced interface state density after oxidization has been verified by the low-frequency noise spectra, Hooge coefficients, and pulse I-V measurement. Improved device characteristics at temperatures of 300 K-450 K have been achieved for the present MOS-HEMT design. Consequently, Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMTs by using the ozone water oxidization method are reported. In comparison with a conventional Schottky-gate HEMT, the MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated excellent enhancements of 138% (176%) in gm, max, 118% (139%) in IDS, max, 53% (62%) in BVGD, 3 (2)-order reduction in IG leakage at VGD = -60 V at 300 (450) K. This work is promising for millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) and three-terminal active UV photodetector applications.

Keywords: passivation, AlGaN/GaN, MOS-HEMT, enhancement mode, ozone water oxidation, gate leakage

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