Ann M. Donoghue

Abstracts

3 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Komala Arsi, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue, Sandip Shrestha, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay

Abstract:

Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Postharvest, Campylobacter jejuni, chicken skin, carvcrol

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2 Invasive Asian Carp Fish Species: A Natural and Sustainable Source of Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: Komala Arsi, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue

Abstract:

Methionine is an essential dietary amino acid necessary to promote growth and health of poultry. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry diets and is temporarily allowed in organic poultry feed for lack of natural and organically approved sources of methionine. It has been a challenge to find a natural, sustainable and cost-effective source for methionine which reiterates the pressing need to explore potential alternatives of methionine for organic poultry production. Fish have high concentrations of methionine, but wild-caught fish are expensive and adversely impact wild fish populations. Asian carp (AC) is an invasive species and its utilization has the potential to be used as a natural methionine source. However, to our best knowledge, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish as a methionine source. In this study, we co-extruded Asian carp and soybean meal to form a dry-extruded, methionine-rich AC meal. In order to formulate rations with the novel extruded carp meal, the product was tested on cecectomized roosters for its amino acid digestibility and total metabolizable energy (TMEn). Excreta was collected and the gross energy, protein content of the feces was determined to calculate Total Metabolizable Energy (TME). The methionine content, digestibility and TME values were greater for the extruded AC meal than control diets. Carp meal was subsequently tested as a methionine source in feeds formulated for broilers, and production performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was assessed in comparison with broilers fed standard commercial diets supplemented with synthetic methionine. In this study, broiler chickens were fed either a control diet with synthetic methionine or a treatment diet with extruded AC meal (8 replicates/treatment; n=30 birds/replicate) from day 1 to 42 days of age. At the end of the trial, data for body weights, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Fisher LSD test for multiple comparisons. Results revealed that birds on AC diet had body weight gains and feed intake comparable to diets containing synthetic methionine (P > 0.05). Results from the study suggest that invasive AC-derived fish meal could potentially be an effective and inexpensive source of sustainable natural methionine for organic poultry farmers.

Keywords: Organic, Poultry, methionine, Asian carp

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1 On-Farm Evaluation of Fast and Slow Growing Genotypes for Organic and Pasture Poultry Production Systems

Authors: Komala Arsi, Terrel Spencer, Casey M. Owens, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue

Abstract:

Organic poultry production is becoming increasingly popular in the United States with approximately 17% increase in the sales of organic meat and poultry in 2016. As per the National Organic Program (NOP), organic poultry production system should operate according to specific standards, including access to outdoors. In the United States, organic poultry farmers are raising both fast growing and slow growing genotypes for alternative productive systems. Even though heritage breed birds grow much slower compared to commercial breeds, many free range producers believe that they are better suited for outdoor production systems. We conducted an on-farm trial on a working pasture poultry farm to compare the performance and meat quality characteristics of a slow-growing heritage breed (Freedom Rangers, FR), and two commonly used fast growing types of chickens (Cornish cross, CC and Naked Neck, NN), raised on pasture, in side by side pens segregated by breed (n=70/breed). CC and NN group birds were reared for eight weeks whereas FR group birds were reared for 10 weeks and all the birds were commercially processed. By the end of the rearing period, the final body weight of FR group birds was significantly lower than both the fast growing genotypes (CC and NN). Both CC and NN birds showed significantly higher live weight, carcass weight as well as fillet, tender and leg yield (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the wing and rack yield among the different groups. Color of the meat was measured using CEILAB method and expressed as lightness (L), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The breast meat from FR birds was much redder (higher a* values) and less yellow (lesser b* values) compared to both the fast growing type of chickens (P < 0.05). Overall, fast growing genotypes produced higher carcass weight and meat yield compared to slow growing genotypes and appear to be an economical option for alternative production systems.

Keywords: Meat Quality, pasture, fast growing chickens, slow growing chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 84