Adeela Ajmal

Abstracts

6 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, forage, urea

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5 Performance of High Density Genotyping in Sahiwal Cattle Breed

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, Adeela Ajmal, Tad S. Sonstegard

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the informativeness of Bovine high density SNPs genotyping in Sahiwal cattle population. This is a first attempt to assess the Bovine HD SNP genotyping array in any Pakistani indigenous cattle population. To evaluate these SNPs on genome wide scale, we considered 777,962 SNPs spanning the whole autosomal and X chromosomes in Sahiwal cattle population. Fifteen (15) non related gDNA samples were genotyped with the bovine HD infinium. Approximately 500,939 SNPs were found polymorphic (MAF > 0.05) in Sahiwal cattle population. The results of this study indicate potential application of Bovine High Density SNP genotyping in Pakistani indigenous cattle population. The information generated from this array can be applied in genetic prediction, characterization and genome wide association studies of Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population.

Keywords: Pakistan, Sahiwal cattle, Genotyping, polymorphic SNPs

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4 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: Production, Pakistan, Dairy, silage, feed

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3 Assesment of SNP Variation and Distribution in Pakistani Cattle Breeds using High Density SNP Genotyping

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Heather J. Huson, Tad S. Sonstegard

Abstract:

In this study, 67 animals, representing six different cattle breeds of Pakistan, were genotyped with the Bovine high density (777K) SNP Beadchip. These include 13 Sahiwal, 09 Red Sindhi, 13 Tharparkar, 08 Achi, 13 Cholistani and 10 Dhanni cattle breeds. Analysis of 500, 939 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.21, 0.22, 0.18, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.22 for Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Achi, Cholistani and Dhanni respectively. Significant differences of minor allele frequency (MAF) were observed between the indigenous Pakistani cattle population (P<0.001). Across these Pakistani cattle breeds, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 75.71 % of the 500,939 SNPs and on the average 19.58 % of the markers were monomorphic. Mean observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities were 0.656 and 0.638, respectively. This primarily study of Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds indicate that this level of SNPs variation can potentially be used for genomic studies for future breeding plans and for farm animal conservation strategies.

Keywords: Pakistan, Cattle, Variation, snp, minor allele frequency

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2 Bioinformatic Study of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Different Buffalo Breeds

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Noor-ul-Ain

Abstract:

World wild, buffalo production is considered as most important component of food industry. Efficient buffalo production is related with reproductive performance of this species. Lack of knowledge of reproductive efficiency and its related genes in buffalo species is a major constraint for sustainable buffalo production. In this study, we performed some bioinformatics analysis on Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene and explored the possible relationship of this gene among different buffalo breeds and with other farm animals. We also found the evolution pattern for this gene among these species. We investigate CDS lengths, Stop codon variation, homology search, signal peptide, isoelectic point, tertiary structure, motifs and phylogenetic tree. The results of this study indicate 4 different motif in this gene, which are Activin-recp, GS motif, STYKc Protein kinase and transmembrane. The results also indicate that this gene has very close relationship with cattle, bison, sheep and goat. Multiple alignment (MA) showed high conservation of motif which indicates constancy of this gene during evolution. The results of this study can be used and applied for better understanding of this gene for better characterization of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene structure in different farm animals, which would be helpful for efficient breeding plans for animal’s production.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Production, buffalo, FSHR gene

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1 Population Structure Analysis of Pakistani Indigenous Cattle Population by Using High Density SNP Array

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, McClure Matt, Khalid Javed, Talat Nasser Pasha, Afzal Ali1, Adeela Ajmal, Tad Sonstegard

Abstract:

Genetic differences associated with speciation, breed formation or local adaptation can help to preserve and effective utilization of animals in selection programs. Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among ten Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds. In total, 25 individuals from three cattle populations, including Achi (n=08), Bhagnari (n=04) and Cholistani (n=13) were genotyped for 777, 962 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE. After characterizing SNP polymorphism in the different populations, we performed a detailed analysis of genetic structure at both the individual and population levels. The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. We further searched for spatial patterns of genetic diversity among these breeds under the recently developed spatial principal component analysis framework. Overall, such high throughput genotyping data confirmed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.

Keywords: Pakistan, Cattle, Genetic Diversity, population structure

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