D. Li

Abstracts

2 Large-Scale Simulations of Turbulence Using Discontinuous Spectral Element Method

Authors: D. Li, A. Peyvan, J. Komperda, F. Mashayek

Abstract:

Turbulence can be observed in a variety fluid motions in nature and industrial applications. Recent investment in high-speed aircraft and propulsion systems has revitalized fundamental research on turbulent flows. In these systems, capturing chaotic fluid structures with different length and time scales is accomplished through the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach since it accurately simulates flows down to smallest dissipative scales, i.e., Kolmogorov’s scales. The discontinuous spectral element method (DSEM) is a high-order technique that uses spectral functions for approximating the solution. The DSEM code has been developed by our research group over the course of more than two decades. Recently, the code has been improved to run large cases in the order of billions of solution points. Running big simulations requires a considerable amount of RAM. Therefore, the DSEM code must be highly parallelized and able to start on multiple computational nodes on an HPC cluster with distributed memory. However, some pre-processing procedures, such as determining global element information, creating a global face list, and assigning global partitioning and element connection information of the domain for communication, must be done sequentially with a single processing core. A separate code has been written to perform the pre-processing procedures on a local machine. It stores the minimum amount of information that is required for the DSEM code to start in parallel, extracted from the mesh file, into text files (pre-files). It packs integer type information with a Stream Binary format in pre-files that are portable between machines. The files are generated to ensure fast read performance on different file-systems, such as Lustre and General Parallel File System (GPFS). A new subroutine has been added to the DSEM code to read the startup files using parallel MPI I/O, for Lustre, in a way that each MPI rank acquires its information from the file in parallel. In case of GPFS, in each computational node, a single MPI rank reads data from the file, which is specifically generated for the computational node, and send them to other ranks on the node using point to point non-blocking MPI communication. This way, communication takes place locally on each node and signals do not cross the switches of the cluster. The read subroutine has been tested on Argonne National Laboratory’s Mira (GPFS), National Center for Supercomputing Application’s Blue Waters (Lustre), San Diego Supercomputer Center’s Comet (Lustre), and UIC’s Extreme (Lustre). The tests showed that one file per node is suited for GPFS and parallel MPI I/O is the best choice for Lustre file system. The DSEM code relies on heavily optimized linear algebra operation such as matrix-matrix and matrix-vector products for calculation of the solution in every time-step. For this, the code can either make use of its matrix math library, BLAS, Intel MKL, or ATLAS. This fact and the discontinuous nature of the method makes the DSEM code run efficiently in parallel. The results of weak scaling tests performed on Blue Waters showed a scalable and efficient performance of the code in parallel computing.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulent Flow, direct numerical simulation, spectral element

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1 Application of the Global Optimization Techniques to the Optical Thin Film Design

Authors: D. Li

Abstract:

Optical thin films are used in a wide variety of optical components and there are many software tools programmed for advancing multilayer thin film design. The available software packages for designing the thin film structure may not provide optimum designs. Normally, almost all current software programs obtain their final designs either from optimizing a starting guess or by technique, which may or may not involve a pseudorandom process, that give different answers every time, depending upon the initial conditions. With the increasing power of personal computers, functional methods in optimization and synthesis of optical multilayer systems have been developed such as DGL Optimization, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithms, Needle Optimization, Inductive Optimization and Flip-Flop Optimization. Among these, DGL Optimization has proved its efficiency in optical thin film designs. The application of the DGL optimization technique to the design of optical coating is presented. A DGL optimization technique is provided, and its main features are discussed. Guidelines on the application of the DGL optimization technique to various types of design problems are given. The innovative global optimization strategies used in a software tool, OnlyFilm, to optimize multilayer thin film designs through different filter designs are outlined. OnlyFilm is a powerful, versatile, and user-friendly thin film software on the market, which combines optimization and synthesis design capabilities with powerful analytical tools for optical thin film designers. It is also the only thin film design software that offers a true global optimization function.

Keywords: Optimization, Optical coatings, design software, thin film design

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