Elena G. Salina


2 Production of Nitric Oxide by Thienopyrimidine TP053

Authors: Elena G. Salina, Vadim A. Makarov, Laurent R. Chiarelli, Maria R. Pasca


Tuberculosis is one of the most challenging threats to human health, confronted by the problem of drug resistance. Evidently, new drugs for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Thienopyrimidine TP053 is one of the most promising new antitubercular prodrugs. Mycothiol-dependent reductase Mrx2, encoded by rv2466c, is known to be a TP053 activator; however, the precise mode of action of this compound remained unclear. Being highly active against both replicating and non-replicating tuberculosis bacilli, TP053 also revealed dose-escalating activity for M. tuberculosis-infected murine macrophages. The chemical structure of TP053 is characterized by the presence of NO₂ group which was suggested to be responsible for the toxic effects of the activated compound. Reduction of a nitroaromatic moiety of TP53 by Mrx2 was hypothesized to result in NO release. Analysis of the products of enzymatic activation of TP053 by Mrx2 by the Greiss reagent clearly demonstrated production of nitric oxide in a time-dependent manner. Mass-spectra of cell lysates of TP-treated M. tuberculosis bacilli demonstrated the transformation of TP053 to its non-active metabolite with Mw=261 that corresponds NO release. The mechanism of NO toxicity for bacteria includes DNA damage and degradation of iron-sulfur centers, especially under oxygen depletion. Thus, TP-053 drug-like scaffold is prospective for further development of novel anti-TB drug. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 17-04-00342).

Keywords: Drug discovery, Nitric Oxide, M. tuberculosis, NO donors

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1 Copper Related Toxicity of 1-Hydroxy-2-Thiopyridines

Authors: Elena G. Salina, Vadim A. Makarov


With the emergence of primary resistance to the current drugs and wide distribution of latent tuberculosis infection, a need for new compounds with a novel mode of action is growing steadily. Copper-mediated innate immunity and antibacterial toxicity propose novel strategies in TB drug discovery and development. Transcriptome of M. tuberculosis was obtained by RNA-seq, intracellular copper content was measured by ISP MS and complexes of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines with copper were detected by HPLC.1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridine derivatives were found to be highly active in vitro against both actively growing and dormant non-culturable M. tuberculosis. Transcriptome response to 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines revealed signs of copper toxicity in M. tuberculosis bacilli. Indeed, Cu was found to accumulate inside cells treated with 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines. These compounds were found to form stable charged lipophylic complexes with Cu²⁺ ions which transport into mycobacterial cell. Subsequent metabolic destruction of the complex led to transformation of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines into 2-methylmercapto-2-ethoxycarbonylpyridines, which did not possess antitubercular activity and releasing of free Cu²⁺ in the cytoplasm. 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines are a potent class of Cu-dependent inhibitors of M. tuberculosis which may control M. tuberculosis infection by impairment of copper homeostasis. Acknowledgment: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the RussianFederation (Agreement No 14.616.21.0065; unique identifier RFMEFI61616X0065).

Keywords: Drug discovery, copper toxicity, M. tuberculosis inhibitors

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