A. Ribeiro

Publications

2 Res2ValHUM: Creation of Resource Management Tool and Microbial Consortia Isolation and Identification

Authors: A. Ribeiro, N. Valério, C. Vilarinho, J. Araujo, J. Carvalho

Abstract:

Res2ValHUM project involves institutions from the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia and the north of Portugal (districts of Porto and Braga) and has as overall objectives of promotion of composting as an process for the correct managing of organic waste, valorization of compost in different fields or applications for the constitution of products with high added value, reducing of raw materials losses, and reduction of the amount of waste throw in landfills. Three main actions were designed to achieve the objectives: development of a management tool to improve collection and residue channeling for composting, sensibilization of the population for composting and characterization of the chemical and biological properties of compost and humic and fulvic substances to envisage high-value applications of compost. Here we present the cooperative activity of Galician and northern Portuguese institutions to valorize organic waste in both regions with common socio-economic characteristics and residue management problems. Results from the creation of the resource manage tool proved the existence of a large number of agricultural wastes that could be valorized. In the North of Portugal, the wastes from maize, oats, potato, apple, grape pomace, rye, and olive pomace can be highlighted. In the Autonomous Region of Galicia the wastes from maize, wheat, potato, apple, and chestnuts can be emphasized. Regarding the isolation and identification of microbial consortia from compost samples, results proved microorganisms belong mainly to the genus Bacillus spp. Among all the species identified in compost samples, Bacillus licheniformis can be highlighted in the production of humic and fulvic acids.

Keywords: Agricultural wastes, Bacillus spp, Bacillus licheniformis, humic-acids, fulvic-acids

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1 On Combining Support Vector Machines and Fuzzy K-Means in Vision-based Precision Agriculture

Authors: A. Tellaeche, X. P. Burgos-Artizzu, G. Pajares, A. Ribeiro

Abstract:

One important objective in Precision Agriculture is to minimize the volume of herbicides that are applied to the fields through the use of site-specific weed management systems. In order to reach this goal, two major factors need to be considered: 1) the similar spectral signature, shape and texture between weeds and crops; 2) the irregular distribution of the weeds within the crop's field. This paper outlines an automatic computer vision system for the detection and differential spraying of Avena sterilis, a noxious weed growing in cereal crops. The proposed system involves two processes: image segmentation and decision making. Image segmentation combines basic suitable image processing techniques in order to extract cells from the image as the low level units. Each cell is described by two area-based attributes measuring the relations among the crops and the weeds. From these attributes, a hybrid decision making approach determines if a cell must be or not sprayed. The hybrid approach uses the Support Vector Machines and the Fuzzy k-Means methods, combined through the fuzzy aggregation theory. This makes the main finding of this paper. The method performance is compared against other available strategies.

Keywords: Precision Agriculture, Fuzzy k-Means, SupportVectors Machines, Weed detection

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Abstracts

3 Res2ValHUM: Creation of Resource Management Tool and Microbial Consortia Isolation and Identification

Authors: A. Ribeiro, N. Valério, C. Vilarinho, J. Araujo, J. Carvalho

Abstract:

Res2ValHUM project involves institutions from the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia and the north of Portugal (districts of Porto and Braga) and has as overall objectives of promotion of composting as an process for the correct managing of organic waste, valorization of compost in different fields or applications for the constitution of products with high added value, reducing of raw materials losses, and reduction of the amount of waste throw in landfills. Three main actions were designed to achieve the objectives: development of a management tool to improve collection and residue channeling for composting, sensibilization of the population for composting and characterization of the chemical and biological properties of compost and humic and fulvic substances to envisage high-value applications of compost. Here we present the cooperative activity of Galician and northern Portuguese institutions to valorize organic waste in both regions with common socio-economic characteristics and residue management problems. Results from the creation of the resource manage tool proved the existence of a large number of agricultural wastes that could be valorized. In the North of Portugal, the wastes from maize, oats, potato, apple, grape pomace, rye, and olive pomace can be highlighted. In the Autonomous Region of Galicia the wastes from maize, wheat, potato, apple, and chestnuts can be emphasized. Regarding the isolation and identification of microbial consortia from compost samples, results proved microorganisms belong mainly to the genus Bacillus spp. Among all the species identified in compost samples, Bacillus licheniformis can be highlighted in the production of humic and fulvic acids.

Keywords: Agricultural wastes, Bacillus spp, Bacillus licheniformis, humic-acids, fulvic-acids

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2 Portuguese Guitar Strings Characterization and Comparison

Authors: A. Ribeiro, V. Infante, P. Serrão, E. Costa

Abstract:

The characteristic sonority of the Portuguese guitar is in great part what makes Fado so distinguishable from other traditional song styles. The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone with six courses of double strings. This study compares the two types of plain strings available for Portuguese guitar and used by the musicians. One is stainless steel spring wire, the other is high carbon spring steel (music wire). Some musicians mention noticeable differences in sound quality between these two string materials, such as a little more brightness and sustain in the steel strings. Experimental tests were performed to characterize string tension at pitch; mechanical strength and tuning stability using the universal testing machine; dimensional control and chemical composition analysis using the scanning electron microscope. The string dynamical behaviour characterization experiments, including frequency response, inharmonicity, transient response, damping phenomena and were made in a monochord test set-up designed and built in-house. Damping factor was determined for the fundamental frequency. As musicians are able to detect very small damping differences, an accurate a characterization of the damping phenomena for all harmonics was necessary. With that purpose, another improved monochord was set and a new system identification methodology applied. Due to the complexity of this task several adjustments were necessary until obtaining good experimental data. In a few cases, dynamical tests were repeated to detect any evolution in damping parameters after break-in period when according to players experience a new string sounds gradually less dull until reaching the typically brilliant timbre. Finally, each set of strings was played on one guitar by a distinguished player and recorded. The recordings which include individual notes, scales, chords and a study piece, will be analysed to potentially characterize timbre variations.

Keywords: Portuguese guitar, damping factor, music wire, string dynamics

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1 Structural Modeling and Experimental-Numerical Correlation of the Dynamic Behavior of the Portuguese Guitar by Using a Structural-Fluid Coupled Model

Authors: A. Ribeiro, M. Vieira, V. Infante, P. Serrão

Abstract:

The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone particularly known for its role in Fado, the most distinctive traditional Portuguese musical style. The acknowledgment of the dynamic behavior of the Portuguese guitar, specifically of its modal and mode shape response, has been the focus of different authors. In this research, the experimental results of the dynamic behavior of the guitar, which were previously obtained, are correlated with a vibro-acoustic finite element model of the guitar. The modelling of the guitar offered several challenges which are presented in this work. The results of the correlation between experimental and numerical data are presented and indicate good correspondence for the studied mode shapes. The influence of the air inside the chamber, for the finite element analysis, is shown to be crucial to understand the low-frequency modes of the Portuguese guitar, while, for higher frequency modes, the geometry of the guitar assumes greater relevance. Comparison is made with the classical guitar, providing relevant information about the intrinsic differences between the two, such as between its tones and other acoustical properties. These results represent a sustained base for future work, which will allow the study of the influence of different location and geometry of diverse components of the Portuguese guitar, being as well an asset to the comprehension of its musical properties and qualities and may, furthermore, represent an advantage for its players and luthiers.

Keywords: Instrument acoustics, modal analysis, dynamic behavior of guitars, Portuguese guitar

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